سازوکارهای نظارت بر رعایت تعهدات و اجرا در موافقت‌نامه پاریس

نوع مقاله: علمی پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 نویسنده مسئول، عضو هیئت علمی دانشکده حقوق‌وعلوم‌سیاسی دانشگاه فردوسی

2 دانش آموخته کارشناسی ارشد دانشگاه شیراز

10.22066/cilamag.2019.35079

چکیده

موافقت‌نامه پاریس، سیستم نظارتی را وضع کرده است که برای تضمین اجرای مؤثر مقررات خود و نیز ارزیابی پیشرفت جمعی در جهت اهداف بلندمدت موافقت‌نامه ضروری است. این سیستم در قالب اطلاع‌رسانی، شفافیت، همکاری و مساعدت به‌عنوان بخشی از عنصر بالا به پایین ساختار دوگانه موافقت‌نامه عمل می‌کند. سیستم نظارتی موافقت­نامه به دو روش 1) دریافت اطلاعات از طریق پایش، گزارش‌دهی و راستی­آزمایی و 2) ایجاد سازکار ارتقای رعایت و تسهیل اجرای تعهدات عمل می­کند. در روش اول، تمامی تعهداتی که دولت­ها به‌صورت متمایز و بنا بر ظرفیت­شان بر عهده گرفته­اند، شفاف‌سازی و پیشرفت جمعی آن­ها در بررسی جامع جهانی ارزیابی می­­شود. در روش دوم، سازکار ارتقای رعایت و تسهیل اجرای تعهدات، به­ترتیب به بررسی عدم رعایت تعهدات الزام­آور و عدم اجرای تعهدات غیرالزام­آور توسط دولت­های عضو در موافقت­نامه می­پردازد. پژوهش حاضر به روش دگماتیک قواعد حقوقی موجود را در مورد رعایت و اجرای تعهدات موافقت­نامه پاریس، بررسی و تحلیل می­کند. نتایج پژوهش حاضر با توجه به نوع تعهدات در موافقت­نامه پاریس، غیرخصمانه و غیرتنبیهی­بودن اقدامات آتی در سازکارهای اجرایی را اثبات می­کند و نشان می­دهد پیوستن به موافقت­نامه پاریس، سبب برقراری تحریم­های جدید علیه ایران نمی­شود.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Supervision Mechanisms on Compliance and Implementation in the Paris Agreement

نویسندگان [English]

  • Azam Amini 1
  • Ehsan Daryadel 2
1 Corresponding author, faculty member of Ferdowsi University of Mashhad
2 M.A. in international law at Shiraz University
چکیده [English]

Paris Agreement has developed a Supervisory System that is necessary for ensuring effective implementation of its provisions and also assessing collective progress towards its long-term goals. This system acts in the framework of communication, transparency, cooperation,and contribution as the top-down component of the binary structure of the agreement. This supervisory system operates in two approaches: 1) receiving information through Monitoring, Reporting, Verification (MRV) and 2) developing a mechanism for promoting compliance and facilitating implementation. In the first approach, all obligations taken by States on a differentiated basis and according to their different capabilities will be transparent and their collective progress will be assessed in global stocktake and in the second approach, the mechanism will examine non-compliance to legally binding obligations and non-implementation of non-binding obligations by parties to the agreement. The present study will analyze the existing legal provisions on compliance and implementation in the Paris Agreement based on dogmatic method. Considering the type of obligations in the Paris Agreement, the results prove future actions in compliance mechanism not being adversarial and punitive and indicate that joining the Paris Agreement would not result in imposing new sanctions against Iran.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Paris Agreement
  • Climate change
  • Compliance Mechanism to Promote and Facilitate the Implementation
  • Transparency
  • Global Stocktake

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