تحلیل دکترین حاشیه انعطاف تفسیر در معاهدات غیرحقوق‌بشری با تأکید بر معاهدات تجاری و سرمایه‏ گذاری

نوع مقاله: علمی پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 نویسنده مسئول، استادیار دانشگاه الزهرا (س)

2 دکتری حقوق بین‌الملل دانشکده حقوق‌وعلوم‌سیاسی دانشگاه علامه طباطبایی

10.22066/cilamag.2019.35086

چکیده

هرچند در ابتدا تصور می‏شد که دکترین حاشیه انعطاف تفسیر در حقوق بین‌الملل، تنها در عرصه معاهدات حقوق­بشری و بالاخص در حوزه کنوانسیون اروپایی حقوق بشر وجود دارد، به دلیل شرایط و قواعد خاص حاکم بر برخی از معاهدات بین‏المللی، مانند وجود تعهدات تخییری، وجود ابهام، درج شروط غیرمانع و وجود تعهدات مثبت، دکترین حاشیه انعطاف تفسیر در بسیاری از معاهدات غیرحقوق‌بشری برای دولت‌ها به‌عنوان حق در نظر گرفته شده است. لذا در عرصه معاهدات بین­المللی، اعطای این حق به دولت‌ها موجب می‌شود که آن‌ها بهترین تصمیم را با توجه به شرایط و ضرورت­های مربوط به منفعت عمومی، انتخاب و اتخاذ کنند. بر این اساس، دیدگاه‌های سنتی که قائل به تضاد دکترین حاشیه انعطاف تفسیر با التزام به تعهدات بین­المللی بود، تعدیل شده، و در این بین اگر با اعطای اختیارات تحت قالب دکترین حاشیه انعطاف تفسیر به دولت‌ها مخالفتی می‌شود، اغلب در ارتباط با نگرانی­های موجود از سوءاستفاده از آزادی عمل و اختیارِ اعطاشده به دولت­هاست که البته این نگرانی­ها نیز با درنظرگرفتن این واقعیت که محاکم قضایی بین‏المللی با کمک استانداردهای بررسی، بر اختیارات دولت‌ها نظارت می‌نمایند، تا حدود زیادی مرتفع می­شود.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Analysis of the Margin of Appreciation Doctrine in Non-Human Rights Treaties with Emphasis on Trade and Investment Treaties

نویسندگان [English]

  • Maryam Ahmadinejad 1
  • Yasser Aminroaya 2
1 Corresponding author, Assistant professor of Al-Zahra University
2 PhD of international law, Allameh Tabatabaei University
چکیده [English]

At first, it was assumed that the Margin of Appreciation Doctrine exists only in the human rights treaties and particularly in the European Convention on Human Rights, while the Margin of Appreciation Doctrine is considered as a right for States in many non-human rights treaties due to specific conditions and rules that govern some international treaties such as the existence of optional obligations or ambiguity, insertion of non-precluded measures clauses and existence of positive obligations. Therefore, in international treaties, the granting of this right to States would enable them to choose and adopt the best decision, according to the circumstances and necessities related to the public interest. Accordingly, the traditional views which believed in the conflict of the margin of appreciation doctrine with adherence to international obligations have been adjusted. There are concerns about the abuse of freedom of action, and powers granted to the States, that leads to an opposition with authorities granted under the framework of the margin of appreciation doctrine to States. Of course, these concerns were obviated somewhat with regard to the fact that, international judicial courts have relied on review standards to supervise on State powers.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Non-Human Rights Treaties
  • Review Standards
  • Freedom of Action and Authorities
  • Commercial Treaties
  • Investment Treaties

الف. فارسی

ـ کتاب

  • عالیخانی، محمد؛ حقوق بین‌الملل، خط سوم، 1378.

ـ مقاله

ب. انگلیسی

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- Articles

 

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