گروه‌های مسلح فراملی و اجرای حقوق بشردوستانه بین‌المللی

نوع مقاله: علمی پژوهشی

نویسنده

استادیار دانشکده معارف اسلامی و حقوق دانشگاه امام صادق (ع)

10.22066/cilamag.2019.82491.1463

چکیده

حضور بازیگرانی غیر از دولت‌ها در نظم نوین جهانی، تهدیدها و فرصت‌های بسیاری را فراروی جوامع بشری و حقوق این جوامع قرار داده است. مقررات حقوق بشردوستانه عمدتاً بر پایه تقسیمات سیاسی و جغرافیایی کشورها بنا گذاشته شده است و همین امر، توصیف درگیری‌های فرامرزی بازیگران غیردولتی و واکنش‌های کشورهای خارجی در قلمرو دیگر کشورها را با مشکل مواجه می‌کند. در واقع چالش اصلی، نزاع‌های مسلحانه است که یک دولت در سرزمین تحت حاکمیت دولتی دیگر انجام می­دهد. در نبود توصیفی روشن از این وضعیت، تعیین حقوق قابل اعمال میسر نخواهد بود. علاوه بر این، اجرای حق‌ها و تکالیف حقوق بشردوستانه بین‌المللی در مورد گروه‌های مسلح فراملی نیز با توجه به وضعیت خاص آن‌ها با مشکلاتی همراه است. اقدامات نظامی فراسرزمینی دولت‌ها در مقابله با گروه‌های مسلح غیردولتی، برخی حقوق­دانان و سیاستمداران را بر آن داشته تا از خلأ یا بی‌کفایتی حقوق مخاصمات مسلّحانه فعلی سخن گفته و با بی‌توجهی نسبت به مقررات موجود، مرزهای بین‌المللی را درنوردند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Transnational Armed Groups and Implementation of International Humanitarian Law

نویسنده [English]

  • Hossein Khalaf Rezaee
Assistant Professor of Faculty of Islamic Education and Law, Imam Sadegh University
چکیده [English]

The existence of non-state actors (NSAs) in new world’s order exposes some opportunities and threats. Humanitarian law is generally based on traditional nation-state divisions and this is acomplicated determination of extraterritorial conflicts with non-state actors. In the absence of such a precise determination, IHL provisions can not properly be implemented while a State fights against a NSA in other State’s territory. Furthermore, regarding their especial status, NSAs are faced with some problems in accomplishment of rights and duties in light of international humanitarian law. Due to the exceedmilitary operations against non‐state armed groups, some scholars and politiciansclaim that international humanitarian law as it stands was developed at another time and is not adequate for the new challenges raised by the contemporary kind of conflicts with transnational armed groups thereby justifying transgression to the international boundaries.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Non-state Actors
  • Armed Conflicts
  • Transnational Armed Groups
  • International humanitarian law
  • Common Article 3

الف. فارسی

ـ کتاب

  • شفیعی ‌بافتی، نگین و سیدعلی هنجنی؛ ابعاد حقوقی بین­المللی مخاصمه مسلحانه غیر‌بین‌‌المللی، میزان، 1392.
  • ممتاز، جمشید و امیرحسین رنجبریان؛ حقوق بین‌الملل بشردوستانه: مخاصمات مسلحانه داخلی، میزان، 1384.

 

ـ مقاله

  • توکلی طبسی، علی؛ منصوری، فرنگیس؛ «تعهد و التزام متخاصمین به قواعد حقوق بشردوستانه در مخاصمه داخلی سوریه»، مجله حقوقی بین‌المللی، شماره 52، بهار و تابستان 1394.
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