Expansion of the Concept of Investment The Starting Point of Relationships between Investment Treaties and Intellectual Property Rights

Document Type : academic


Assistant Professor, Department of Law, Islamic Azad University, Tabriz Branch


The first step of all matters about the relationships between investment treaties and intellectual property rights starts from the concept of investment. Clarifying this matter that to what extent intellectual property rights constitute the concept of investment in investment treaties is the beginning point of all relevant matters. Although protection for investment and investors existed in other forms, the creation of investment treaties expanded the meaning of investment in international investment law. Investment treaties by evolution in the concept of investment and introducing intellectual property as investment extended the treaty protections to intellectual property rights. By considering intellectual property rights as a kind of investment, host State has to observe treaty standards for intellectual properties of foreign investors. In this article, the evolution which occurred in investment’sconcept is reviewdand then the innovations created by investment treaties in this regard are clarified.


  • الف. فارسی

    ـ مقاله

    • ابراهیمی، سیدنصرالله و سجاد سلطان­زاده؛ «مفهوم سرمایه­گذاری در رویه داوری مرکز حل‌و‌فصل اختلافات سرمایه­گذاری خارجی (ایکسید)»، مجلهحقوقیبینالمللی، شماره 50، بهار و تابستان 1393.
    • مهدوی، ابوالقاسم و سجاد برخورداری؛ «حقوق مالکیت فکری و جریان سرمایه‌گذاری مستقیم خارجی (مورد ایران)»، مجله دانش و توسعه، سال پانزدهم، شماره 24، پاییز 1387.
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    ـ رساله

    • خرم­ فرهادی، یوسف؛ تحلیل موافقت­نامه­های دوجانبه تشویق و حمایت متقابل از سرمایه‌گذاری میان ایران و سایر کشورها در دهه­های اخیر (1385-1375)، رساله دکتری حقوق بین­الملل عمومی­، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد علوم­وتحقیقات، 1388.


    ب. انگلیسی

    - Books

    • Salacuse, Jeswald W., The Law of Investment Treaties, Oxford, 2010.
    • Sornarajah, M., The International Law on Foreign Investment, Cambridge University Press, 3rd ed., 2010.
    • UNCTAD, 2000b, Bilateral Investment Treaties, 1959-1999, Geneva, United Nations.
    • Yannaca, Catherine, Definition of Investor and Investment in International Investment Agreements, International Investment Law: Understanding Concepts and Tracking Innovations, ISBN 978-92-64-04202-5, OECD, 2008.


    - Articles

    • Anderson, Alan M. & Razavi, Bobak, “Globalization of Intellectual Property Rights: TRIPS, BITs, and the Search for Uniform Protection”, GA. J. INT'L & COMP. L., vol. 38, 2010.
    • Arnold, Cortney M., “Protecting Intellectual Property in the Developing World: Next Stop—Thailand”, Duke Law & Technology Review, 5, no. 1, 2006.


    • Correa, Carlos M., “Bilateralism in Intellectual Property: Defeating the WTO System for Access to Medicines, Case W. Res. J. Int'l L. vol. 36, 2004.
    • Demirkol, Berk, “The Notion of 'Investment' in International Investment Law”, Turkish Commercial Law Review, vol. 41, 2015.
    • Dolzer, R., “The Notion of Investment in Recent Practice”, in S. Charnovitz, DP Steger and P. Van Den Bossche (eds.) Law in the Service of Human Dignity: Essays in Honour of Florentino Feliciano, CUP, Cambridge, 2005.
    • Hamilton, Calvin A. & Rochwerger, Paula I., “Trade and Investment: Foreign Direct Investment through Bilateral and Multilateral Treaties”, NY INT’L L. REV. vol. 18, 2005.
    • Haslam, Paul Alexander, “BITing Back: Bilateral Investment Treaties and the Struggle toDefine an Investment Regime for the Americas”, Policy and Society, vol. 23:3, 2004.
    • Julian Davis, Mortenson, “The Meaning of 'Investment': ICSID's Travaux and the Domain of International Investment Law”, Harvard International Law Journal, vol. 51, No. 1, 2010.
    • Lavery, Rachel A., “Coverage of Intellectual Property Rights in International Investment Agreements: An Empirical Analysis of Definitions in a Sample of Bilateral Investment Treaties and Free Trade Agreements”, Transnational Dispute Management (TDM) vol. 6, No. 2, 2009.
    • Liberti, Lara, “Intellectual Property Rights in international Investment Agreements”,OECD working papers on international investment, OECD publishing, 2010.
    • Maximiliano Santa Cruz, S., “Intellectual Property Provisions in European Union Trade Agreements: Implications for Developing Countries”. ICTSD International Centre for Trade and Sustainable Development, 2007.
    • Mercurio, Bryan Christopher, “Awakening the Sleeping Giant: Intellectual Property Rights in International Investment Agreements”, Journal of International Economic Law, vol. 15(3), 2012.
    • Okediji, Ruth L., “Back to Bilateralism? Pendulum Swings in International Intellectual Property Protection”, University of Ottawa Law and Technology Journal, vol. 1, 2004.
    • Sattorova, M., “From Expropriation to Non-Expropriatory Standards of Treatment: Towards a Unified Concept of an Investment Treaty Breach”, Ph.D. Thesis, The School of Law, College of Arts and Law, The University of Birmingham, 2011.
    • Voon, Tania S., Andrew D. Mitchell, and James Munro, “Intellectual Property Rights in International Investment Agreements: Striving for Coherence in National and International Law, in International Economic Law After the Crisis: A Tale of Fragmented Disciplines, 2012.

    - Cases

    • EnCana Corporation v. Republic of Ecuador (Award), London Court of International Arbitration, Case No UN3481, 3 February 2006, [184].
    • Saipem SpA v. The People’s Republic of Bangladesh (Decision on Jurisdiction), ICSID Arbitral Tribunal, Case No ARB/05/07, 21 March 2007.