Basis and Development of Venturesome Theory of Preliminary Negotiations in International Documents and Comparative Law

Document Type : academic


1 Assistant Professor, Kharazmi University, Faculty of Law and Political Science, Tehran, Iran

2 Associate Professor, Islamic Azad University, Science and Research Branch, Tehran, Iran


It has been traditionally accepted that the law should abstain from interfering  in the preliminary negotiations of the parties for contract formation procedure. This makes the preliminary negotiations a risky period. Based on venturesome theory of negotiations, the parties must begin negotiations considering the possibility of non-concluding the contract and bear the risks of leaving the negotiations by the opposing party. Over time, it became clear that non-interference of law in pre-contractual procedure causes unfair results and does not accommodate the social destination of contract. Therefore, modern law recognized the interference in preliminary negotiations. Accordingly, in the Principles of European Contract Law and UNIDROIT Principles of International Commercial Contracts, based on the principle of good faith, certain obligations are undertaken by the parties of the preliminary negotiations and that the breach of these obligations entails liability. This theory has been declining due to the intervention of law in preliminary negotiations and accepting liability at this stage.


  • الف. فارسی

    ـ کتاب

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    ـ مقاله

    • السان، مصطفی؛ «جایگاه قصد در تفسیر قراردادها»، مجله کانون وکلای دادگستری، شماره 65، 1385.
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    ب. انگلیسی

    - Books

    • Banakas, Stathis, Liability for Contractual Negotiations in English Law: Looking for the Litmus Test, University of East Anglia, Revista Para El Análisis Del Derecho, 2009.
    • Busch, Danny and Others, The Principles of European Contract Law and Dutch Law: A Commentary, Kluwer Law International, The Hague, 2002.
    • Campbell Black, Henry, Black’s Law Dictionary, 5th Edition, West Publishing Company, 1979.
    • Cartwright, John and Martijn Hesselink, Pre-contractual Liabilty in Eurpoean Private Law, Cambridge University Press, New York, 2009.
    • Garner, Bryan A., Black’s Law Dictionary, Thomson Publication, 2004.
    • Giliker, Paula, Pre-contractual Liability in English and French Law, Kluwer Law International, The Hague, 2002.
    • Tetley, William, Good Faith in Contract: Particularly in the Contracts of Arbitration and Chartering, McGill University, 2004.


    - Articles

    • Arunachalam, Aarti, “An Analysis of the Duty to Negotiate in Good Faith: Pre-contractual Liability and Preliminary Agreement”, University of Georgia, School of Law, 2002.
    • Bebchuk, Lucian Arye and Omri Ben-Shahar, “Pre-contractual Reliance”, The Journal of Legal Studies, University of Chicago Press, Vol. 30 (2), 2001.
    • Dietrich, Joachim, “Classifying Pre-contractual Liability: A Comparative Analysis”, Legal Studies, Vol. 21, 2001.
    • Giliker, Paula, “A Role for Tort in Pre-contractual Negotiations? An Examination of English, French and Canadian Law”, International and Comparative Law Quarterly (ICLQ), Vol. 52, No. 4, 2003.
    • Hesselink, Martijn W., “The Politics of a European Civil Code”, European Law Journal, Vol. 10, No. 6, 2004.
    • Kucher, Alyona, “Pre-contractual Liability: Protecting the Rights of the Parties Engaged in Negotiations”, NYU- Paper, 2004.
    • Pettinelli, Avv. Cristiano, “Good Faith in Contract Law: Two Paths, Two Systems, the Need for Harmonization”, Diritto & Diritti, Rivista giuridica elettronica pubblicata su Internet, 2005.
    • Powers, Paul, “Defining the Indefinable: Good Faith and the United Nations Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods”, Journal of Law and Commerce, Vol. 18, 1999.
    • Weitzenböck, Emily M., “Good Faith and Fair Dealing in the Context of Contract Formation by Electronic Agents”, Proceedings of the AISB 2002 Symposium on Intelligent Agents in Virtual Markets, Imperial College London, 2002.

    - Theses

    • Caterini, Florence, “Pre-contractual Obligations in France and the United States”, LLM Thesis, University of Georgia, School of Law, 2005.
    • Bilal, Ahmad, “The Pre-contractual Duty of Good Faith: A Comparative Analysis of the Duty of Utmost Good Faith in the Marine Insurance Contract Law with the Duty of Good Faith in the General Contract Law”, LLM Thesis, Lund University, 2010.


    ج. فرانسه

    • Cachard, Olivier , Droit du Commerce International, LGDJ, 2008.
    • Mestre, J., L'exigence de bonne foi dans la conclusion du contrat, RTD civ., 1989.
    • Mousseron, P., Négociations précontractuelles et responsabilité civile délictuelle, RTD com., 1998.
    • Vanel, Marguerite, Bonne Foi, Encyclopédie Juridique, Répertoire de droit civil, 1984.