Domestic Institutionalization of Human Rights in International Human Rights Law; From National Institution to National System

Document Type : academic


1 Imam Sadiq University

2 Imam Sadiq (pbuh) University



One of the complex issues of international human rights law is the gap between theory and practice. Despite significant progress, international and regional mechanisms have not been able to fully bridge this gap. In this regard, "Domestic Institutionalization of Human Rights" seeks to play a complementary role in the multi-level supervision of international institutions over the protection of human rights in states. This article examines the role of "domestic institutionalization" in international human rights law. The article concludes that the United Nation’s prescriptions for domestic institutionalization of human rights have evolved beyond a mere focus on the role of the national human rights institution, and as much as it is related to the concept of “national human rights system”, it studies all relevant elements, including governmental and non-governmental actors, the legal framework, processes and relationships between them as a system. This process indirectly and softly weakens the absolute sovereignty of states. 


Main Subjects

  1. آ. کتاب

    1. Burdekin, B., & Naum, J. National human rights institutions in the Asia Pacific Region. Raoul Wallenberg Institute human rights library, 1388-3208: v. 27. Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, 2007.
    2. Eide, Asbjorn, Catarina Krause and Allan Rosas, Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, Tehran: Majd Publication, 1389.
    3. Eslami, Reza. Human Rights?, A Normative Guide to Civil and Political Rights for Civil Society Empowerment. Tehran: Majd Publication, 1395.
    4. Halliday, S., & Schmidt, P. D. Human Rights Brought Home: Socio-legal perspectives on human rights in the national context. Human rights law in perspective: v. 3. Hart, 2004.
    5. “Human rights in the world today: a priority for the United Nations”, United Nations Information Centre, no. 1, (No date), pp. 1-74.
    6. Parvin, Kheirollah. Human Rights, from Theory to Practice, Tehran, Mizan Publication, 1395.
    7. Sinha, P. C., Encyclopaedia of Human Rights (1st). Anmol Publications, 2002.
    8. Sharifi Tarazkoohi, Hosein, Human Rights; Values and Realities, Tehran, Mizan Publication, 1390.
    9. Strengthening the National Human Rights Protection System: Manual for Embassies of the EU Member States:. Human Rights Division of Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Netherlands; Czech Presidency of the European Union, 2009.
    10. Tomuschat, Christian, Human Rights, Trans by Hosein Sharifi Tarazkoohi, Tehran, Mizan Publication, 1391.
    11. Trier Hansen, T., The constitutional protection of human rights. Danish Institute for Human Rights, 2012.
    12. Zamani, Ghasem, AmirSaed Vakil, Pouria Askari, Regional Institutions and Mechanisms for Protection of Human Rights, Tehran: Shahr Danesh Legal Research Institute, 1394.


    ب. مقالات

    1. Hathaway, Oona A., Do Human Rights Treaties Make a Difference? The Yale Law Journal, 111(8), 1935, 2002.
    2. Jensen, Steven, Stéphanie Lagoutte and Sébastien Lorion, the Domestic Institutionalisation of Human Rights: An Introduction. Nordic Journal of Human Rights, 37(3), 2019, pp. 165–176.
    3. Lagoutte, Steven, The Role of State Actors Within the National Human Rights System. Nordic Journal of Human Rights, 37(3), 2019, pp. 177–194.
    4. Pegram, Tom, Global Human Rights Governance and Orchestration: National Human Rights Institutions as Intermediaries. European Journal of International Relations, 21(3), 2015, pp. 595–620.
    5. Ramcharan, Bertrand G., National Responsibility to Protect Human Rights. Hong Kong Law Journal, 39, 2009, pp. 361–400.
    6. Risse, Thomas, Stephen C. Ropp, Introduction and overview. In The Persistent Power of Human Rights: From Commitment to Compliance. Cambridge University Press, 2013, pp. 3–25,
    7. Roberts Lyer, Kirsten, Parliaments as Human Rights Actors: The Potential for International Principles on Parliamentary Human Rights Committees. Nordic Journal of Human Rights, 37(3), 2019, pp. 195–215.

    پ. اسناد و گزارشات

    1. Annan, Kofi. Strengthening of the United Nations: an agenda for further change: report of the Secretary-General: A/57/387, New York, September 9, 2002.
    2. Bangalore Principles of Judicial Conduct, 2006.
    3. Basic Principles on the Independence of the Judiciary, September 6, 1985.
    4. Basic Principles on the Role of Lawyers, September 7, 1990.
    5. Basic Principles on the Use of Force and Firearms by Law Enforcement Officials, September 7, 1990.
    6. Code of Conduct for Law Enforcement Officials, December 17, 1979.
    7. Guidelines on the Role of Prosecutors, September 7, 1990.
    8. Human Rights and Constitution Making. Human Rights and Constitution Making. United Nations Human Rights Office of the High Commissioner, 2018.
    9. OHCHR, Handbook on National Human Rights Plans of Action. UN, 2000.
    10. Contribution of Parliaments to the Work of the Human Rights Council and its Universal Periodic Review, May 17, 2018.
    11. Secretary General, Strengthening United Nations action in the field of human rights through the promotion of international cooperation and the importance of non-selectivity, impartiality and objectivity, August 21, 2017.
    12. United Nations, Seminar on National and Local Institutions for the Promotion and Protection of Human Rights: ST/HR/SER.A/2, September 18, 1978 .
    13. United Nations Centre for Human Rights, National human rights institutions: A handbook on the establishment and strengthening of national institutions for the promotion and protection of human rights. Professional training series: no.4. United Nations, 1995.

    ت. پایگاه‌های اینترنتی

    1. The Danish Institute for Human Rights. National Human Rights Systems. (last seen: Tuesday, June 18, 2019)
    2. Child Protection Systems Strengthening. (last seen: Wednesday, November 2, 2022)