عنوان مقاله [English]
نویسنده [English]چکیده [English]
Darfur province became the latest chapter in Sudan's civil wars when Sudan Liberation Army/Movement (SLA) and Justice and Equality Movement (JEM) rebels took arms against government in February 2003. Rebels claimed years of political, economic and social marginalisation of the region. Rebels made up of predominantly African sedentary tribes, such as Fur, Zaghawa and Massaleit. After a string of military victories in spring 2003, the government responded to rebellion by arming Arab "Janjaweed" militia to clear civilian population bases of African tribes thought to be supporting rebellions. Violence and broken ceasefires continued throughout 2004 and 2005 despite intermittent peace talks and presence of African Union Protection Force from August 2004. Divisions between and within the two rebel groups exacerbates conflict and hinder negotiations.