ماهیت و قلمرو تعهد رفتار دولت کامله‌الوداد در چارچوب موافقت‌نامه عمومی تجارت خدمات

نوع مقاله: علمی پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشیار دانشکده حقوق و علوم‌‌‌ سیاسی دانشگاه علامه طباطبایی

2 نویسنده مسئول، کارشناسی ارشد حقوق بین‌الملل دانشگاه تربیت مدرس

چکیده

موافقت‌نامه عمومی تجارت خدمات (گاتس) یکی از موافقت‌نامه‌های سازمان جهانی تجارت است که تجارت خدمات را میان اعضای سازمان، قاعده‌مند کرده است. با تصویب گاتس به‌عنوان اولین و تنها موافقت‌نامه چندجانبه‌ای که تجارت بین‌المللی خدمات را پوشش می‌دهد، سازمان جهانی تجارت، نقش خدمات را در اقتصاد جهانی به ‌رسمیت شناخت. یکی از اصول بنیادین سازمان جهانی تجارت و به تبع آن، گاتس، اصل عدم تبعیض است. این اصل، در چارچوب گاتس، شامل دو مؤلفه است: تعهد رفتار دولت کامله‌الوداد و تعهد رفتار ملی. ماده 2 گاتس با تأکید بر لزوم رفتار دولت کامله‌الوداد نسبت به خدمات و عرضه‌کنندگان خدمات به‌طوری‌که از رفتار درمورد خدمات و عرضه‌کنندگان خدمات مشابه دیگر اعضا نامطلوب‌تر نباشد، تعهد به رفتار دولت کامله‌الوداد را محترم و الزامی می‌شمارد؛ این رفتار باید فوراً و بدون قیدوشرط به دیگر اعضا تسری یابد. یک عضو به شرطی می‌تواند به اقدامی مغایر با دولت کامله‌الوداد ادامه دهد که چنین اقدامی در ضمیمه مربوط به معافیت‌های ماده 2 فهرست شده و با شرایط مقرر در این ضمیمه انطباق داشته باشد. همچنین در مواد 14 و 14 مکرر و دیگر مواد گاتس به برخی معافیت‌های دیگر تصریح شده است که در ضمن این پژوهش به آن‌ اشاره خواهد شد. 

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The Nature and the Scope of MFN Obligation under GATS

نویسندگان [English]

  • Ghasem Zamani 1
  • Mehryar Rashedi 2
چکیده [English]

The General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS) is one of the WTO agreements that regulates trade in services among members of WTO. WTO recognized the important role of services in the global economy by adopting the GATS, which is the first and the only multilateral agreement covering international trade in services. One of the basic principles of WTO and GATS is Non-Discrimination principle. Non-Discrimination under the GATS consists of two elements; Most-Favored-Nation (MFN) and National Treatment (NT) obligations. Article II of the GATS enshrines the MFN obligation which requires no less favorable treatment among different WTO Members than that is accorded to like services or service suppliers of any other country. This treatment shall accord immediately and unconditionally. A Member may maintain a measure inconsistent with MFN provided that such a measure is listed in and meets the conditions of the Annex on Article II Exemptions. MFN, also, has some exemptions which stipulate the GATS provisions. The general exceptions justifying discriminatory measures contained in Articles XIV and XIV bis of the GATS, apply to general obligations and specific commitments. Additional exemptions to the MFN obligation are scattered across the GATS and will be discussed separately in this study.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • WTO
  • GATS
  • Services
  • Non-Discrimination
  • MFN

 منابع:

الف) فارسی

ـ کتاب

  • بیگ‌زاده، ابراهیم؛ حقوق سازمان‌های بین‌المللی، مجد، 1389.
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ـ مقاله

  • کوتیر، توماس و ماتیاس اوش؛ «تبعیض مستقیم و غیرمستقیم در حقوق سازمان تجارت جهانی و اتحادیه اروپا»، ترجمه: مهریار راشدی، ویژه‌نامه مجله حقوقی بین‌المللی، زمستان 1391.
  • گالاچر، اسکات؛ «موافقت‌نامه عمومی تجارت خدمات سازمان جهانی تجارت و تجارت بین‌المللی خدمات حقوقی»، ترجمه: مسعود کمالی ­اردکانی، مجله حقوقی بین‌المللی، شماره 39، 1387.

 

ب) انگلیسی

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- Documents, Awards and Reports

  • Canada – Certain Measures Affecting the Automotive Industry, WT/DS139/R - WT/DS142/R, 11 February 2000.
  • Canada – Certain Measures Affecting The Automotive Industry, WT/DS139/AB/R & WT/DS142/AB/R, 31 May 2000.
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  • United States - Section 337 of the Tariff Act of 1930, L/6439 - 36S/345, 7 November 1989.
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  • WTO, Protocol on the Accession of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, Cambridge University Press, 2005.