نظارت ایکائو بر استانداردها و رویه‌های پیشنهادی هوانوردی

نوع مقاله: علمی پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استاد دانشکده حقوق وعلوم سیاسی دانشگاه علامه طباطبایی

2 کارشناسی ارشد حقوق بین الملل دانشگاه علامه طباطبایی

چکیده

یکی از مقررات مهم کنوانسیون شیکاگو، مربوط به تصویب استانداردها و طرح‌های پیشنهادی در خصوص عملیات هواپیما و سیستم هوانوردی است. کنوانسیون شیکاگو به ایکائو اختیار داده است تا در مواقع لزوم، «موازین، مقررات بین‌المللی و طرح‌های پیشنهادی» را که جنبه بین‌المللی دارند وضع نماید. این مقررات و استانداردها، ضمائم کنوانسیون شیکاگو را تشکیل می‌دهد.
کشورهای عضو کنوانسیون شیکاگو تعهد کرده ‌اند، قوانین، مقررات و آیین‌نامه‌های خود را با استانداردهای بین‌المللی که ایکائو تصویب می‌کند هماهنگ نمایند. ایکائو باید از تصویب و اجرای این استانداردها توسط دولت‌های عضو، اطمینان حاصل کند. تا سال 1998 ایکائو نظارتی بر اجرای این استانداردها نداشت. مجمع عمومی ایکائو برنامه ممیزی نظارت بر ایمنی را تصویب کرد. این مقاله در نظر دارد سیر تحول نظارت ایکائو بر مقررات کشورها را بررسی کرده و درنهایت، نگاهی به عملکرد ایران در اجرای برنامه‌های نظارتی توسط ایکائو داشته باشد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

ICAO Audit Program to Verify the Aviation Standards and Recommended Practices

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mansour Jabbari 1
  • Marziye Ghalandari 2
چکیده [English]

A fundamental regulation of the Chicago Convention is related to the adoption of uniform rules or standards with regard to all aspects of the operation of aircraft and of the system required to support international air navigation. This is done by ICAO Council which is authorized by the Chicago Convention, when required,  to regulate the ‘international standards and recommended practices’. These standards and regulations constitute the Annexes to the Convention. All States under the Chicago Convention are required to adopt regulations uniformed with those established under the Convention and the standards adopted by ICAO as embodied in the Annexes to the Convention. By 1998, there was no audit program to find out whether States incorporate international standards into their national laws. To ensure the States’ compliance with international standards, ICAO General Assembly passed Resolution A32-11, which established ‘ICAO’s Safety Oversight Program’ to assess member States’ compliance with these Standards. This article intends to assess the development of ICAO audit program to verify the member States’ compliance with ICAO’s‘standards and recommended practices’ and finally to have a glance at Iran’s practice in this regard.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO)
  • ICAO Audit Program
  • ICAO Standards and Recommended Practices
  • Iran & USOAP

منابع:

الف) فارسی

ـ کتاب

  • جباری، منصور؛ حقوق بین­الملل هوایی، فروزش، 1381.
  • ________؛ حقوق هوایی از منظر حقوق داخلی و بین­الملل، شهر دانش، 1393.
  • نواده توپچی، حسین؛ مقدمه­ای بر حقوق بین­الملل هوایی، خرسندی، 1390.
  • زمانی، سید‌قاسم؛ حقوق سازمان­های بین­المللی، شهر دانش، 1392.

 

ـ مقاله

  • محمودی، سیدهادی و علی­اکبر گلرو؛ «بررسی ابعاد حقوقی استانداردها و رویه­های پیشنهادی مصوب ایکائو»، مجموعه مقالات سومین همایش ایمنی هوانوردی، تهران، 27ـ26 آذرماه 1384.

 

ب) انگلیسی

- Books

  • Huang, Jiefang, Aviation Safety and ICAO, The Netherlands; Kluwer Law Publisher, 2009.
  • Soekkha, Hans (ed.), Aviation Safety, Human Factors, System Engineering, Flight Operations, Economics, Strategies and Management, First Published, The Netherlands, VSP, 1997.
  • Dempsey, Paul Stephen, Public International Air Law, Canada; McGill University, 2008.
  • The Concise Oxford Dictionary, 9th edition, Oxford University Press, 1995.
  • Buergenthal, Thomas, Law Making in the International Civil Aviation Organization, (1969).

 

- Articles

  • Huang, Jiefang, “Aviation Safety, ICAO and Obligations Erga Omnes”, Chinese Journal of International Law, vol. 8, No. 1; 63-79, 2009.
  • Miller, C. O. “State of the Art in Air Safety”, Journal of Air Law and Commerce, 343-347, 34 (1957).
  • Tompkins, G., “Enforcement of Aviation Safety Standards”, (1995), XX AASL, 319.
  • Wassenbergh, H., “Safety in Air Transportation and Market Entry”, (April, 1998) XXIII:2 Air and Space Law.

- Documents and Cases

  • Annexes 1 to 18 of the convention on International Civil Aviation.
  • Chicago Convention, 1944.
  • Changes to the International Aviation Safety Assessment (IASA) Program, 65 FED. REG.33,752 (May 25, 2000) (to be codified at 14 C.F.R. pt.129).
  • ICAO Assembly Resolution, A29-13: “Improvement of Safety Oversight”.
  • ICAO Assembly Resolution, A32-11: “Establishment of an ICAO Universal Safety Oversight Audit Programme”, I-56.
  • ICAO Assembly Resolution, A33-1.“Declaration on misuse of civil aircraft as weapons of destruction and other terrorist acts involving civil aviation”.
  • ICAO Assembly Resolution, A33-2.“Consolidated statement of continuing ICAO policies related to the safeguarding of international civil aviation against acts of unlawful interference”.
  • ICAO Assembly Resolution, A33-3. “Increasing the effectiveness of ICAO (to face new challenges)”.
  • ICAO Assembly Resolution, A33-4.“Adoption of national legislation on certain offences committed on board civil aircraft (unruly/disruptive passengers)”.
  • ICAO Assembly Resolution, A33-9: “Resolving deficiencies identified by the Universal Safety Oversight Audit Programme and encouraging quality assurances for technical cooperation projects”.
  • ICAO Assembly Resolution, A33-10.Establishment of an International Financial Facility for Aviation Safety (IFFAS)
  • ICAO Assembly Resolution, A35-6: “Transition to a comprehensive systems approach for audits in the ICAO Universal Safety Oversight Audit Programme (USOAP)”.
  • ICAO, G. A. Resolution, 162/1 (Superseding Assembly Res. 33-8).
  • ICAO Doc.9707, Directors General of Civil Aviation Conference on a Global Strategy for Safety Oversight, Report (1997).
  • ICAO Doc. 9735, AN/960, ICAO Safety Oversight Audit Manual (second edition, 2006).
  • ICAO Doc. 9848, Assembly Resolutions in Force (as of 8 October 2004).
  • ICAO Doc. 9921 , Assembly- Thirty- Seventh Session. High-level safety conference, supplement, August 2010.
  • ICAO Doc.9958, Assembly Resolutions in Force (as of 8 October 2010): Resolutions: A37-5: “The Universal Safety Oversight Audit Programme (USOAP) continuous monitoring approach”.
  • Doc 10022, Assembly Resolutions in Force (as of 4 October 2013), A37-5: The Universal Safety Oversight Audit Programme (USOAP) continuous monitoring approach.
  • ICAO Doc.10022, Assembly Resolutions in Force (as of 4 October 2013): Resolutions: A38-5: “Regional cooperation and assistance to resolve safety deficiencies, establishing priorities and setting measurable targets”.
  • ICAO Doc 10022, ICAO Assembly Resolution in Force ( 4 October 2013), A37-1. “Principles for a code of conduct on the sharing and use of safety information”.
  • ICAO Assembly Resolution, A37-16. “The Safety Fund (SAFE)”
  • ICAO Working Paper AN-WP/7699, Determination of a Definition of Aviation Safety, 11 December 2001.
  • The Appendix to the ICAO Working Paper, DGCA/97-WP/4, “Dealing with Confidentiality and Sovereign Issues”, 2 October 1997.
  • ICAO State letter AN 11/41-05/87, 12 August 2005. at Attachment A, A-2.
  • P.C.I.J. Reports, 7 September 1927, Lotus Case, Series A, No.10 at 18.
  • Security Council Resolution 2166 (2014).

 

- Websites