کارآمدی اقدامات متقابل به‌عنوان ضمانت اجرای حقوق بشر

نوع مقاله: علمی پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 نویسنده مسئول، دانشیار دانشکده حقوق دانشگاه شهید بهشتی

2 دانشجوی دکتری حقوق بین‌الملل دانشگاه تهران، پردیس قم

3 کارشناسی ارشد حقوق جزا و جرم‌شناسی، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، واحد بندرعباس

چکیده

ضعف نظام اجرایی حقوق بین‌الملل و فقدان ضمانت اجراهای گسترده و مؤثر برای تعهدات حقوق بشری، اهمیت اقدامات متقابل را دوچندان می‌کند. باوجود این، تبعات زیان‌بار استفاده از این ابزار و خطرات احتمالی به‌کارگیری آن، پرسش جدی نسبت به‌کارآمدی و مطلوبیت استفاده از اقدامات متقابل در فراروی دولت‌ها و حقوق‌دانان بین‌المللی قرار می‌دهد. بررسی وضعیت دولت‌هایی که تاکنون به دلیل نقض حقوق بشر در معرض اقدامات متقابل قرار گرفته‌اند، همچنین دقت در نظریات حقوق‌دانان بین‌المللی، نشان‌گر آن است که این اقدامات در عین ضرورت و اهمیتی که برای حقوق بین‌الملل دارند، پیامدهای زیان‌باری بر مردمان این سرزمین‌ها تحمیل کرده و درنتیجه، به شکل کنونی، ابزار مطلوب و چندان کارآمدی برای الزام دولت‌ها به ایفای تعهدات حقوق بشری‌شان نیستند. بدون شک، مذاکره بر سر حدود و شرایط استفاده از این اقدامات و چاره‌اندیشی به‌منظور رفع نقاط ضعف آن‌ها، گام بزرگی در راستای تضمین رعایت تعهدات حقوق بشری دولت‌ها در نظام بین‌المللی کنونی خواهد بود. 

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The Efficiency of Counter Measures as Means of Enforcing Human Rights

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mohsen Abdollahi 1
  • Parisa Roshanfekr 2
  • Zahra Dabiry 3
چکیده [English]

Counter Measures as means of persuading states to comply with their human rights commitments towards their own nationals have not been elaborated in the ILC articles on international responsibility of States. However, these measures are of great importance in the view of scholars and member States of international community. The lack of effective enforcement system for human rights commitments intensifies this importance. Notwithstanding this significance, the negative effects of applying countermeasures on human rights and humanitarian rights of the people of the target States and also the grave risks allowing such actions inflict on international affairs lead scholars to serious questions concerning the effectiveness of counter measures as means of persuading states to comply with their human rights commitments. As a matter of fact, there seems to be an unsettled conflict between the legal necessity of counter measures as enforcement means of human rights and the very negative political, economic and humanitarian effects of using such means. 

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Effectiveness
  • Counter Measures
  • Self-Help
  • Human Rights Commitments
  • Nationals
  • International Responsibility of States
  • international community

منابع:

الف) فارسی

ـ کتاب

  • اسمیت، روناک م.؛ کتاب درسی قواعد حقوق بین‌المللی بشر، ترجمه: فاطمه کیهانلو، انتشارات دانشکده حقوق‌‌وعلوم‌سیاسی دانشگاه تهران، 1388.
  • تاموشات، کریستین؛ حقوق بشر، ترجمه: حسین شریفی طرازکوهی، میزان، 1386.
  • فلسفی، هدایت­الله؛ حقوق بین‌الملل معاهدات، چاپ دوم، نشر نو، 1383.
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ـ رساله

  • ابراهیم‌گل، علیرضا؛ تأثیر اقدامات متقابل بر اجرای مسئولیت بین‌المللی دولت با تأکید بر مسئولیت ناشی از منافع جمعی، رساله دکتری حقوق بین‌الملل، دانشکده حقوق دانشگاه شهید بهشتی، 1388.

 

ـ وب‌گاه

 

ـ مصاحبه

  • ضیایی‌ بیگدلی، رضا؛ «ابعاد حقوقی تحریم­ها»، مصاحبه با روزنامه اعتماد، شماره 2801، 21/7/92.

 

ب) انگلیسی

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- Articles

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- Documents and Press

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