تحلیل ابعاد اصل حسن‌نیت در حقوق بین‌الملل در پرتو رویه قضایی

نوع مقاله: علمی پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 نویسنده مسئول، استادیار دانشکده حقوق‌وعلوم‌سیاسی دانشگاه تهران

2 دانشجوی دکتری حقوق بین‌الملل دانشگاه تهران

چکیده

حسن‌نیت به‌عنوان یکی از اصول بنیادین و کلی حقوق بین‌الملل، بیانگر لزوم وجود انصاف، صداقت و معقول‌بودن در روابط بین‌المللی است؛ اصلی که پاسداشت منافع و انتظارات مشروع و معقول طرفین این روابط است و به‌طور ویژه به‌عنوان ضرورت در حل‌و‌فصل اختلافات بین‌المللی مطرح است. برخی از قواعد حقوق بین‌الملل، ازجمله لزوم وفای به عهد، استاپل، سکوت و سوء‌استفاده از حقوق و انجام مذاکرات، بر پایه حسن‌نیت بنا شده ‌است. این مقاله با بررسی چگونگی ارتباط میان حسن‌نیت و قواعد مذکور، در پایان نتیجه می‌گیرد که اگرچه حسن‌نیت به‌تنهایی منبع تعهدات محسوب نمی‌شود، می‌توان برای آن، نقش تحدیدِ حدودکننده قائل بود؛ بدین معنا که رعایت این اصل از سوی دولت‌ها، اجرای حقوق و تعهدات آن‌ها در عرصه بین‌المللی را تنظیم می‌‌‌کند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

A Scrutiny of Aspects of the Good Faith Principle in the International Law in the Light of Jurisprudence

نویسندگان [English]

  • Hamid Alhooii Nazari 1
  • Aghil Mohammadi 2
چکیده [English]

Good faith is one of the general and fundamental principles of International Law which indicates the need for voice of fairness, honesty and reasonableness in international relations. This principle protects legitimate and reasonable interests and expectations of parties to international relations and is particularly raised as a requirement for the settlement of international disputes. Some of the rules of International Law, including pacta sunt servanda, estoppel, acquiescence, abuse of rights and negotiations are basically established on good faith. This article examines the relationship between good faith and the mentioned rules and ultimately argues that although good faith is not merely considered as a source of obligations, it acts as a limitation, i. e. the fulfillment of this principle by States regulates the performance of their rights and obligations in the international community.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Good Faith
  • General Principles of Law
  • Legitimate Expectations
  • Pacta sunt servanda
  • Estoppel
  • Acquiescence
  • Abuse of Rights
  • Negotiations

منابع:

الف) فارسی

ـ کتاب

  • ضیائی بیگدلی، محمدرضا؛ حقوق بین‌الملل عمومی، چاپ بیست‌وسوم، گنج دانش، 1384.
  • فلسفی، هدایت‌الله؛ حقوق بین‌الملل معاهدات، فرهنگ نشر نو، 1379.
  • __________؛ صلح جاویدان و حکومت قانون، دیالکتیک همانندی و تفاوت، فرهنگ نشر نو با همکاری نشر آسیم، 1390.

 

ـ مقاله

  • ابراهیمی، یحیی؛ «مطالعه تطبیقی مفهوم و آثار حسن‌نیت در انعقاد، تفسیر و اجرای قراردادها»، مجله حقوقی بین‌المللی، شماره 41، پاییز و زمستان 1388.
  • باریکلو، علیرضا و علی خزایی؛ «اصل حسن‌نیت و پیامدهای آن در دوره پیش‌قرادادی؛ با مطالعه‌‌‌‌‌‌‌‌‌‌ تطبیقی در حقوق انگلیس و فرانسه»، مجله حقوقی دادگستری، سال 75، شماره 76، 1390.
  • کاتوزیان، ناصر و محمدهادی عباس‌زاده؛ «حسن‌نیت در حقوق ایران»، فصلنامه حقوق، مجله دانشکده حقوق‌وعلوم‌سیاسی، دوره 43، شماره 3، 1392.

 

ب) انگلیسی

- Books and Articles

  • Byers, Michael, “Abuse of Rights: An Old Principle, A New Age”, McGill Law Journal, vol. 47, 2002, pp. 389-434.
  • Bennoune, Karima, “The Intersection of Nuclear Weapons and International Human Rights Law: Implications for the Good-Faith Obligation to Negotiate Nuclear Disarmament”, pp. 1-15. Available at: http://lcnp.org/wcourt/Geneva-Bennoune.4ca.pdf.
  • Cremades, Bernardo M, “Good Faith in International Arbitration”, American University International Law Review, vol. 27:4, 2012, pp.761- 789.
  • Cheng, Bin, General Principles of Law as Applied by International Courts and Tribunals, Cambridge, 1987.
  • Dörr, Oliver, Schmalenbach, Kirsten, (ed.) Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties: A Commentary, Springer, 2012.
  • Goodwin-Gill, Guy, “State Responsibility and the “Good Faith” Obligation in International Law”, in: Malgosia Fitzmaurice and Dan Sarooshi (eds), Issues of State Responsibility before International Judicial Institutions, North America (US and Canada): Hart Publishing, 2004.
  • Hyland, Richard, “Pacta sunt servanda: A Meditation”, Virginia Journal of International Law, No. 34, 1993-1994, pp.405- 433.
  • International Association of Lawyers against Nuclear Arms, Good Faith Negotiations Leading to the Total Elimination of Nuclear Weapons, Published by International Human Rights Clinic, Human Rights Program, Harvard Law School, 2009.
  • Kolb, Robert, “Principles as Sources of International Law (with Special Reference to Good Faith)”, Netherlands International Law Review, vol. 53, No.1, 2006, pp. 1- 36.
  • Mitchell, Andrew D, “Good Faith in WTO Dispute Settlement”, Melbourne Journal of International Law, vol.7, 2006, pp. 340-373.
  • Mac Gibbon, I. C, “Scope of Acquiescence in International Law”, British Yearbook of International Law, No.43, 1954. pp. 143-168.
  • Merrills, J. G, International Dispute Settlement, United States of America: Cambridge University Press, 5th ed., 2011.
  • Noslacan, Mircea, “The Good-Faith in the Public International Law and the Community Law”, Union of Scientists- Stara Zagora, International Scientific Conference, 5-6 June 2008, pp.1-4. Available at: http://www.sustz.com/ Proceeding08/Papers/Social studies/Mircea_Noslacan.pdf
  • O’Connor, John F, Good Faith in International Law, Dartmouth Pub Co, 1991.
  • O’Neill, Barry, “What Does It Mean for Nations to ‘Negotiate in Good Faith’?”, Center for International Security and Cooperation Stanford University, March 2001, p. 2, 5. pp. 1-15. Available at: http://www.sscnet.ucla.edu/polisci/faculty/boneill/goodfaith5.pdf.
  • Powers, Paul J, “Defining the Indefinable: Good Faith and the United Nations Convention on the Contracts for the International Sale of Goods”, Journal of Law and Commerce, No. 18, 1999, pp. 333-353.
  • Rudolf, Bernhardt, Max-Planck Institute, Encyclopedia of Public International Law, vol.7, Amsterdam: North-Holland, 1984.
  • Reinhold, Steven, “Good Faith in International Law”, Bonn Research Papers on Public International Law, No.2, 2013, pp. 1-21.
  • Rosenne, Shabtai, Developments in the Law of Treaties 1945-1986 (Cambridge Studies in International and Comparative Law), Cambridge University Press, 1989.
  • Schwarzenberger, Georg and Edward D. Brown, A Manual of International Law (6th ed.), 1976.
  • Shaw, Malcolm N, International Law, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 6th ed., 2008.
  • Scheffer, David J, “Non-Judicial State Remedies and the Jurisdiction of the International Court of Justice”, 27 Stanford Journal of International Law (SJIL), 1990-1991, pp.83-155.
  • Shafer J. D, Elizabeth J, “Good Faith Negotiation, the Nuclear Disarmament Obligation of Article VI of the NPT, and Return to the International Court of Justice”, Presented at International Seminar, “Abolition of Nuclear Weapons, War and Armed Forces” 26 January 2008, pp.1-18. Available at: http://lcnp.org/wcourt/goodfaith-shafer.pdf
  • Tetley, William, “Good Faith in Contract Particularly in the Contracts of Arbitration and Chartering”, Journal of Maritime Law and Commerce, vol. 35, No. 4, 2004. Available at: https://www.mcgill.ca/files/maritimelaw/goodfaith.pdf. pp. 1-68.
  • Voigt, Juris Christina, “The Role of General Principles in International Law and Their Relationship to Treaty Law”, Retfærd Årgang 31 2008 NR. 2/121, Post- Doc Research University of Oslo, Department of Public and International Law, pp. 3-25.
  • Villiger, Mark E, Commentary on the 1969 Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties, Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, 2009.
  • Van Alstine, Michael P, “The Death of Good Faith in Treaty Jurisprudence and a Call for Resurrection”, The Georgetown Law Journal, vol. 93: 1885, 2005, pp. 1885-1945.
  • Wagner, Megan L, “Jurisdiction by Estoppel in the International Court of Justice”, California Law Review, vol.74, No. 5, 1986, pp.1777-1804.
  • Weapons of Mass Destruction Commission, Final Report, “Weapons of Terror: Freeing the World of Nuclear, Biological, and Chemical Arms”, Stockholm, Sweden, 1 June 2006.

 

- Documents and Awards

  • A/CN.4/SER.A/1964, Report of the International Law Commission Covering Its 16th Session, Yearbook of the International Law Commission (11 May-24 July 1964), vol. I.
  • A/CN.4/167 and Add.1-3, International Law Commission, Third Report on the Law of Treaties, by Sir Humphrey Waldock, Special Rapporteur, 3 March, 9 June, 12 June and 7 July 1964, Yearbook of the International Law Commission, vol. II.
  • Advisory Opinion, Conditions of Admission of a State to Membership in the United Nations (Article 4 of the Charter), ICJ, 28 May 1948.
  • ------, Individual Opinion by M. Alvarez.
  • ------, Judgment of 18 December 1951, Case Concerning Fisheries (United Kingdom v. Norway), Merits.
  • ------, Certain Norwegian Loans (France v Norway) (Jurisdiction), 6 July 1957.
  • Right of Passage over Indian Territory (Portugal v. India), ICJ, Judgment of 12 April 1960.
  • Temple of Preah Vihear (Cambodia v. Thailand), ICJ, Judgment of 15 June 1962.
  • ------, Dissenting Opinion of Sir Percy Spender.
  • North Sea Continental Shelf (Federal Republic of Germany/Netherlands), ICJ, Judgment of20February 1969.
  • Nuclear Tests (Australia v. France), ICJ, Judgment of 20 December 1974.
  • Fisheries Jurisdiction (United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland v. Iceland), ICJ, Judgment of 25 July 1974.
  • ICJ, Verbatim Record, CR 1995/26, (Public sitting held on Monday 6 November 1995, at 10 A.M., at the Peace Palace, President Bedjaoui presiding).
  • Advisory Opinion, Legality of the Threat or Use of Nuclear Weapons, ICJ, 8 July 1996
  • The Gabčíkovo-Nagymaros Project (Hungary v. Slovakia), ICJ, Judgment of 25 September 1997.
  • Delimitation of the Maritime Boundary in the Gulf of Maine Area (Canada v. United States of America), ICJ, Judgment of 12 October 1984.
  • Border and Transborder Armed Actions (Nicaragua v. Honduras), ICJ, Judgment of 20 December 1988.
  • Land and Maritime Boundary between Cameroon and Nigeria (Cameroon v. Nigeria), (Preliminary Objections), ICJ, Judgment of 11 June 1998.
  • Advisory Opinion, Legal Consequences of the Construction of a Wall in the Occupied Palestinian Territory, ICJ, 9 July 2004, Separate Opinion of Judge Higgins.
  • The Republic of the Marshall Islands files Applications against nine States for their alleged failure to fulfill their obligations with respect to the cessation of the nuclear arms race at an early date and to nuclear disarmament, ICJ, Press Release, No. 2014/18, 25 April 2014.
  • Understanding on Rules and Procedures Governing the Settlement of Disputes, Annex 2 of the WTO Agreement, 1994.
  • United States- Anti-Dumping Measures on Certain Hot-Rolled Steel Products from Japan, Report of the Appellate Body, WT/DS184/AB/R.
  • United States- Tax Treatment for ‘Foreign Sales Corporations’, WTO Doc WT/DS108/AB/R, AB-1999-9 (24 February 2000, (Report of the Appellate Body) (‘US — FSC’).
  • Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS), 1 January 1996.
  • UN General Assembly, A/RES/2625(XXV), (United Nations, 24 Oct 1970).
  • Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties, 23 May 1969.
  • United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS), 1982.
  • Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT), 1968.
  • Reports of International Arbitration Awards, The North Atlantic Coast Fisheries Case (Great Britain, United States), 7 September 1910, vol. XI.
  • Arbitral Tribunal for the Agreement on German External Debts, Case of the Swiss Confederation v. the German Federal Republic, 3 July 1958.
  • Arbitral Tribunal, Lake Lanoux Arbitration (France v. Spain), 12 R.I.A.A. 281; 24 I.L.R. 101, 16 November 1957.
  • Ad hoc Arbitral Tribunal, The Government of the State of Kuwait v. The American Independent Oil Company (Kuwait v. Aminoil), 66 I.L.R., 24 March 1982.
  • Concluding Observations of the Human Rights Committee: United States of America, U.N. Doc. No. CCPR/C/USA/CO/3/Rev.1, 2006.
  • International Law Commission (ILC), A/CN.4/63, Yearbook of the International Law Commission, Documents of the fifth session, vol. 2, 1953.
  • ------, A/CN.4/SER.A/1963/ADD.1, Yearbook of the International Law Commission, Documents of the fifteenth session, vol. 2, 1963.

 

- Websites