مقابله با گرسنگی در نظام حقوق بین الملل: از نقض حقوق بشر تا جنایت بین المللی

نوع مقاله : علمی پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار گروه حقوق دانشکدة علوم اجتماعی، دانشگاه بین‌المللی امام خمینی (ره)، قزوین

2 استادیار دانشکدة حقوق دانشگاه تربیت مدرس

چکیده

گرسنگی عمدی، نقض حقوق بشر و جنایت بین‌­المللی است که مرتکبین آن طی سال­های متمادی از بی‌­کیفر بوده‌­اند اما اخیراً جامعة بین­المللی اقداماتی برای پیشگیری و مقابله با آن تمهید کرده و ازجمله در اساسنامة رم احصا شده است گرچه مفاد اساسنامه به علت عدم شفافیت در مورد عناصر جرم و به‌ویژه عنصر معنوی و نیز محدودشدن ارتکاب آن به شرایط خاص، مورد انتقاد بوده و توسعة مفهومی آن ضروری است. مقالة حاضر این مسئله را بررسی و تحلیل می­کند که چگونه به­صورت تدریجی و ضمن ارتکاب نقض یک حق بشری مانند حق بر غذا از سوی دولت­ها (با انگیزه­های سیاسی، نظامی و اقتصادی) علیه افراد انسانی، جنایت بین‌­المللی یعنی تحمیل گرسنگی به وقوع می‌پیوندد و اینکه ظرفیت­ حقوق بین‌­الملل ازجمله در نظام حقوق بین‌­الملل کیفری و نظام حقوق بین‌­الملل بشر برای پیشگیری از وقوع این جنایت و راهکارهای مقابله با بی­‌کیفری مرتکبین آن چیست. پاسخ به این مسئله در تضمین مؤثر موازین حقوق‌بشری بسیار مهم و حیاتی است و به‌مرور می­تواند موجب تسریع و تسهیل تعقیب کیفری بین­‌المللی نقض­های شدید و فاحش حقوق‌بشری شود.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Countering Starvation in International Law: From a Human Rights Violation to an International Crime

نویسندگان [English]

  • Haleh Hosseini Akbarnejad 1
  • Hoorieh Hosseini Akbarnejad 2
1 Assistant Professor of Law, Faculty of Social Sciences, Imam Khomeini International University, Qazvin
2 Assistant Professor, Faculty of Law, Tarbiat Modares University
چکیده [English]

Deliberate starvation is a violation of human rights and a crime whose perpetrators have long enjoyed total impunity. Recently, however, the international community has taken steps to prevent and combat it, including provisions in the Rome Statute. Although, its provisions have been criticized for lack of transparency about the elements of crime, especially the subjective element (mens rea), or for limiting the commission of that crime to international armed conflict, therefore, its conceptual development is essential. Because of these considerations, the present article seeks to examine and analyze how gradually and by violating a human right such as the right to food by governments (with political, military, and economic motives) the commitment of an international crime as starvation takes place. Also, what is the capacity of international law, including in the international criminal law system and the international human rights system, to prevent the occurrence of this crime and the strategies to combat the impunity of its perpetrators? The answer to this question is very important and vital in the effective guarantee of human rights standards, and over time, it can accelerate and facilitate the international prosecution of serious and gross human rights violations.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • starvation
  • Right to Food
  • International Crime
  • the Rome Statute
  • War Crime
  • human rights
  • Genocide
  • Crime against Humanity.  
  • الف. فارسی

    • طلایی، فرهاد و علی زرم‌خواه؛ «تعهدات دولت­ها در قبال حق بر غذا با توجه به مادة یازدهم میثاق بین­المللی حقوق اقتصادی، اجتماعی و فرهنگی»، فصلنامة حقوق، مجلة دانشکدة حقوق و علوم سیاسی، دورة 43، شمارة 2، تابستان 1392.
    • ابراهیم‌گل، علیرضا؛ «حق بر غذا: پیش شرط تحقق سایر حقوق»، مجلة حقوقی بین­المللی، سال بیست­وپنجم، شمارة 39، پاییز و زمستان 1387.
    • انصاری، محمدباقر، شکورا حاجی و علی اورک­پور؛ «موازین وضع تحریم‌های شورای امنیت و وضعیت حقوق بشر در بررسی حق بر غذا به‌عنوان یکی از حقوق اقتصادی، اجتماعی و فرهنگی»، فصلنامة مطالعات حقوق بشر اسلامی، سال دوم، شمارة سوم، بهار 1392.
    • اسفندیاری، چنگیز و سیدباقر میرعباسی؛ «بررسی ابعاد حق بر غذا و امنیت غذایی در اسناد بین­المللی»، فصلنامة حقوق پزشکی، سال نهم، شمارة 35، زمستان 1395.
    • فروغی‌نیا، حسین، محمد نقوی مرمتی و علی نقوی مرمتی؛ «ماهیت تعهدات دولت­ها در خصوص حق بر غذا از منظر حقوق بین­الملل بشر و حقوق بشردوستانه»، فصلنامة مطالعات حقوق بشر اسلامی، سال سوم، شمارة هفتم، پاییز و زمستان 1393.

     

    ب. انگلیسی

    - Books

    • Buggeln, M., Slave Labor in Nazi Concentration Camps, Oxford University Press, 2014.
    • Callwell, C. E., Small Wars: Their Principles and Practice, University of Nebraska Press, 1996.
    • Collingham, L., The Taste of War: World War II and the Battle for Food, Penguin Press, 2011
    • Conley-Zilkic, B. (ed.), How Mass Atrocities End: Studies from Guatemala, Burundi, Indonesia, The Sudans, Bosnia-Herzegovina, and Iraq, Cambridge University Press, 2016
    • de Waal, Alex, Mass Starvation: The History and Future of Famine, Polity Press, 2017
    • Denis, Herbel, and Crowley, Eve, Good Practices in Building Innovative Rural Institutions to Increase Food Security, Rome, Italy, FAO Publications, 2012.
    • Gillespie, A., A History of the Laws of War: The Customs and Laws of War with Regards to Civilians in Times of Conflict, Hart Publishing, 2011, Vol. 2.
    • Porch, D., Counterinsurgency: Exposing the Myths of the New Way of War, Cambridge University Press, 2013.
    • Schirmer, Jennifer, The Guatemalan Military Project: A Violence Called Democracy, University of Pennsylvania Press, 1998
    • Watts, M. J., Silent Violence: Food, Famine and Peasantry in Northern Nigeria, University of California Press, 1983.
    • Dinstein, Y., The Conduct of Hostilities under the Law of International Armed Conflict, Cambridge University Press, 2016, 3rd Edition.

     

    - Articles

    • Dapo and Gillard, Emanuela-Chiara, “Conflict-induced Food Insecurity and the War Crime of Starvation of Civilians as a Method of Warfare: The Underlying Rules of International Humanitarian Law”, Journal of International Criminal Justice, Vol. 17, Issue 4, September 2019.
    • Baram, A., “The Effects of Iraqi Sanctions: Pitfalls and Responsibility”, The Middle East Journal, Vol. 54, 2000.
    • Chadwick, Anna E., “Gambling on Hunger? The Right to Adequate Food and Commodity Derivatives Trading”, Human Rights Law Review, Vol. 18, Issue 2, 2018.
    • Conley, Bridget and de Waal, Alex, “The Purposes of Starvation Historical and Contemporary Uses”, Journal of International Criminal Justice, Vol. 17, No.4, 2019.
    • Feunteun, Tristan, “Cartels and the Right to Food: An Analysis of States’ Duties and Options”, Journal of International Economic Law, Vol. 18, Issue 2, June 2015.
    • Giacca, Gilles,  Nohle, Ellen, “Positive Obligations of the Occupying Power: Economic, Social and Cultural Rights in the Occupied Palestinian Territories”, Human Rights Law Review, Vol. 19, Issue 3, 2019.
    • Hossain, Naomi and Lintelo, Dolf te, “A Common Sense Approach to the Right to Food”, Journal of Human Rights Practice, Vol. 10, Issue 3, November 2018.
    • Hutter, Simone, “Starvation in Armed Conflicts: An Analysis Based on the Right to Food”, Journal of International Criminal Justice, Vol. 17, Issue 4, September 2019.
    • Lander, Brian and Vetharaniam Richards, Rebecca, “Addressing Hunger and Starvation in Situations of Armed Conflict — Laying the Foundations for Peace”, Journal of International Criminal Justice, Vol. 17, No.4, 2019.
    • Marcus, D., “Famine Crimes in International Law”, American Journal of International Law, Vol. 97, Issue 2,
    • Rosenberg, Sheri P., “Genocide is a Process, Not an Event”, Genocide Studies and Prevention: An International Journal, Vol. 17, Issue 1, 2012.
    • Sinha, Manoj Kumar, “Right to Food: International and National Perspectives”, Journal of the Indian Law Institute, Vol. 56, No. 1.
    • Ventura, Manuel, “Prosecuting Starvation under International Criminal Law: Exploring the Legal Possibilities”, Journal of International Criminal Justice, Vol. 17, No. 4, 2019.

     

    - Instruments

    • Additional Protocol I to the Geneva Conventions (1977)
    • Besteman, C., ‘Conflict over Resources and the Victimization of the Minorities in the South of Somalia’, Reinventing Peace: World Peace Foundation, 31 October 2013, available online at https://sites.tufts.edu/ reinventingpeace/2013/10/31/conflict-over-resources-and-the-victimization- of-the-minorities-in-the-south-of-somalia/ (visited 1 October 2020).
    • CESCR, General Comment No. 12: The Right to Adequate Food (Art. 11), E/C.12/1999/5.
    • Checchi, F. and Others, ‘Estimates of Crisis-Attributable Mortality in South Sudan, December 2013-April 2018: A Statistical Analysis’, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, September 2018, available online at https://www.lshtm.ac.uk/ south-sudan-full-report (visited 1 October 2020).
    • Conley-Zilkic, Bridget, “Mass Atrocity Endings” (World Peace Foundation, 2017), available online at https://sites.tufts.edu/atrocityendings/ (visited 1 October 2020).
    • FAO, The Right to Food and Access to Justice: Examples at the National, Regional and International Levels, 2009.
    • FAO, The Right to Food Guidelines: Information Papers and Case Studies, Rome, 2006.
    • Global Rights Compliance and The World Peace Foundation, The Crime of Starvation and Methods of Prosecution and Accountability (Policy Paper), 2019.
    • Young, H. and Jaspars, S., “Review of Nutrition and Mortality Indicators for the IPC: Reference Levels and Decision-making”, September 2009, available online at https://www.odi.org/sites/odi.org.uk/files/odi-assets/ publications-opinion-files/5636. pdf (visited 1 October 2019).
    • Human Rights Watch, World Report 2018: Israel and Palestine (2017), available at https://www. hrw.org/world-report/2018/country-chapters/ israel/palestine# (visited 1 October 2020).
    • Integrated Food Security Phase Classification (IPC), Technical Manual Version 2.0: Evidence and Standards for Better Food Security Decisions (2012), available online at http://www.fews.net/sites/default/files/uploads/ IPC-Manual-2-Interactive.pdf (visited 1 October 2019).
    • Palestinian Central Bureau of Statistics, ‘Socio-Economic Food Security Survey 2018 Preliminary Results’, 10 December 2018, available online at https://fscluster.org/sites/default/files/documents/sefsec_2018_-_food_pdf (visited 15 September 2020).
    • Report of the Special Rapporteur on the Right to food: Critical Perspective on Food Systems, Food Crises and the Future of the Right to Food, A/HRC/43/44, 21 January 2020.
    • SC Res. 687, 3 April 1991.
    • The Report of the Special Rapporteur on the Right to Food: The Right to Food in the Context of International Trade Law and Policy, 22 July 2020.
    • UN Commission on Human Rights, Resolution 2001/25, 20 April 2001.
    • United Nations Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights, ‘Fact Sheet No. 20: Human Rights and Refugee’, available at: https://www.ohchr.org/Documents/Publications/FactSheet20en.pdf (visited 1 October 2020).
    • United Nations, Policy Brief: The Impact of COVID-19 on Food Security and Nutrition, June 2020.

     

    - Cases

    • ICC, Prosecutor v. Bemba et al., Appeal Judgment, ICC-01/05-01/13-2275-Red, 8 March 2018.
    • ICC, Prosecutor v. Katanga and Ngudjolo, Decision on the Confirmation of Charges, ICC-01/04-01/07.
    • ICC, Prosecutor v. Katanga, Trial Judgment, ICC-01/04-01/07-3436-tENG, 7 March 2014.
    • ICC, Prosecutor v. Lubanga, Appeal Judgment, ICC-01/04-01/06-3121-Red, 1 December 2014.
    • ICC, Prosecutor v. Ntaganda, Trial Judgment, ICC-01/04-02/06-2359, 8 July 2019.
    • ICJ, Alleged Violations of the 1955 Treaty of Amity, Economic Relations, and Consular Rights (Islamic Republic of Iran v. United States of America), Provisional Measures, Order of 3 October 2018.
    • ICJ, Legal Consequence of the Construction of a Wall in the Occupied Palestinian Territory, 2004.
    • ICTR, Hategekimana v. The Prosecutor, Appeal Judgment, ICTR-00-55B-A, 8 May 2012.
    • ICTR, Prosecutor v. Akayesu, Trial Judgment, ICTR-96-4-T, 2 September 1998.
    • ICTR, Prosecutor v. Kayishema and Ruzindana, Trial Judgment, ICTR-95-1-T, 21 May 1999.
    • ICTR, Prosecutor v. Seromba, Appeal Judgment, ICTR-2001-66-A, 12 March 2008.
    • ICTY, Prosecutor v. Blaškić, Appeal Judgment, IT-95-14-A, 29 July 2004.
    • ICTY, Prosecutor v. D. Milošević, Appeal Judgment, IT-98-29/1-A, 12 November 2009.
    • ICTY, Prosecutor v. Galić, Appeal Judgment, IT-98-29-A, 30 November 2006.
    • ICTY, Prosecutor v. Jelisić, Appeal Judgment, IT-95-10-A, 5 July 2001.
    • ICTY, Prosecutor v. Karadžić, Trial Judgment, IT-95-5/18-T, 24 March 2016.
    • ICTY, Prosecutor v. Kordić and Čerkez, Appeal Judgment, IT-95-14/2-A, 17 December 2004.
    • ICTY, Prosecutor v. Krnojelac, Trial Judgment, IT-97-25-T, 15 March 2002.
    • ICTY, Prosecutor v. Kupreškić et al., Trial Judgment, IT-95-16-T, 14 January 2000.
    • ICTY, Prosecutor v. Lukić and Lukić, Trial Judgment, IT-98-32/1-T, 20 July 2009.
    • ICTY, Prosecutor v. Stakić, Appeal Judgment, IT-97-24-A, 22 March 2006.
    • ICTY, Prosecutor v. Tolimir, Trial Judgment, IT-05-88/2-T, 12 December 2012.
    • ICTY, Prosecutor v. Vasiljević, Trial Judgment, IT-98-32-T, 29 November 2002.