کاربرد تسلیحاتی موشک‌های بالستیک از منظر حقوق بین‌الملل بشردوستانه

نوع مقاله : علمی پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استاد گروه حقوق عمومی دانشکده حقوق و علوم سیاسی دانشگاه تهران

2 دانشجوی کارشناسی ارشد حقوق بین‌الملل دانشکده حقوق و علوم سیاسی دانشگاه تهران، تهران، ایران

چکیده

از زمان شلیک اولین موشک بالستیک در جهان، ماهیت جنگ برای همیشه تغییر پیدا کرد و تطورات عمیقی را در عرصه‌های نظامی و سیاسی در دنیا رقم زد. موشک‌های بالستیک، این امکان را برای یک ملت فراهم می‌کرد تا از میدان نبرد دور شوند و با مصونیت نسبیِ به­دست آمده، به عمق قلمرو دشمن حمله، و خسارات سنگینی را وارد کنند. وجه ممیز شاخص موشک بالستیک، توانایی در حمل کلاهک‌های سنگین هسته‌ای به وزن 40 مگاتن است که در کنار برد 12000 کیلومتری آن، سبب افزایش نگرانی قدرت‌های بین‌المللی شده است. به همین منظور، آنان در فقدان ملاحظات قواعد بین‌المللی خاص، اقدام به تصمیم‌گیری‌های سیاسی و انحصاری راجع به مشروعیت یا عدم مشروعیت کاربرد این سلاح کرده‌اند. آنچه در این تحقیق از نظر گذرانده می‌شود، پاسخ به چگونگی وضعیت حقوقی موشک‌های بالستیک در حقوق بین‌الملل بشردوستانه است. یافته‌های تحقیق مبیّن آن است که علی‌رغم ماهیت قانونی موشک بالستیک، ارزیابی مشروعیت یا عدم مشروعیت کاربرد این جنگ‌افزار، منوط به بررسی داده‌های تجربی ناشی از هر رزمایش موشکی است که بدین موازات، نتیجه‌گیری کلی در خصوص وضعیت قانونی موشک بالستیک حاصل نمی‌شود مگر آنکه در هر مورد، داده‌های تجربی موشک پرتابی مورد مداقه قرار گیرد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Analytical Survey on the Use of Ballistic Missile Weapons in International Humanitarian Law

نویسندگان [English]

  • Seyyed Fazlollah Mousavi 1
  • Amir Lohrasbi 2
1 Professor, Public Law Department, Faculty of Law and Political Sciences, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran.
2 MA. Student in International Law, Faculty of Law and Political Sciences, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

Since the launch of the world's first ballistic missile, the nature of warfare has changed forever, with profound military and political developments around the world. Ballistic missiles made it possible for a nation to move away from the battlefield and, with the relative immunity gained, to strike deep into the enemy's territory and inflict heavy losses. The distinctive feature of the ballistic missile is its ability to carry heavy nuclear warheads weighing 40 megatons, which, in addition to its 12,000-kilometer range, has raised concerns among international powers. To this end, in the absence of consideration of specific international rules, they have made political and exclusive decisions about the legitimacy or illegitimacy of the use of this weapon. This study tries to provide the answer to the legal status of ballistic missiles in international humanitarian law. The findings of the study indicate that, despite the legal nature of ballistic missiles, the assessment of the legitimacy or illegitimacy of the use of this weapon depends on the examination of experimental data from each missile exercise, which does not provide a general conclusion about the legal status of ballistic missiles, unless the experimental data of the launched missile be reviewed and verified.
 

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Additional Protocol I
  • Ballistic missile
  • International humanitarian law
  • Nuclear warhead
  • Weapon
  • experimental data
  • منابع:

    - Books

    • Boothby, William, Weapons and the Law of Armed Conflict, Oxford University Press, 2016.
    • Chun, Clayton K.S., Thunder over the Horizon: From V-2 Rockets to Ballistic Missiles (War, Technology, and History), Praeger, 2006.
    • Delissen, Astrid, Humanitarian Law of Armed Conflict: Challenges Ahead, Springer, 1991.
    • Department of Defense, Conduct of the Persian Gulf War, United States Govt Printing Office, 1992.
    • Dinstein, Yoram, The Conduct of Hostilities under the Law of International Armed Conflict, Cambridge University Press, 2016.
    • Garner, Bryan A., Black's Law Dictionary, Thomson West Publishing, 2009.
    • Heinegg, Wolff Heintschel, International Humanitarian Law and New Weapon Technologies (34th Round Table on Current Issues of International Humanitarian Law), FrancoAngeli, 2012.
    • Henckaerts, Jean-Marie, Doswald-Beck, Louise, Customary International Humanitarian Law: Volume 1, Rules, UK, Cambridge University Press, 2005.
    • Joyner, Daniel H., International Law and the Proliferation of Weapons of Mass Destruction (Oxford Monographs in International Law), UK, Oxford University Press, 2009.
    • Joyner, Daniel H., Iran's Nuclear Program and International Law, Oxford University Press, 2016.
    • Kalshoven, Frits, Constraints on the Waging of War: An Introduction to International Humanitarian Law, Cambridge University Press, 2011.
    • Kolb, Robert, Hyde, Richard, An Introduction to the International Law of Armed Conflicts, Hart Publishing, 2008.
    • O’Donovan, Oliver, The Just War Revisited, Cambridge University Press, 2003.
    • Pirseyedi, Bobi, Arms Control and Iranian Foreign Policy: Diplomacy of Discontent (Routledge Studies in Middle Eastern Politics), UK, Routledge, 2012.
    • Powell, John, Weapons & Warfare: Warfare: Culture and Concepts, Salem Press, 2010.
    • Program on Humanitarian Policy and Conflict Research at Harvard University (HPCR), HPCR Manual on International Law Applicable to Air and Missile Warfare, Cambridge University Press, 2013.
    • Stockholm International Peace Research Institute. SIPRI Yearbook 2003: Armaments, Disarmament and International Security (SIPRI Yearbook Series), Oxford University Press, 2003.
    • K. Ministry of Defence (MOD), The Manual of the Law of Armed Conflict, Oxford University Press, 2004.
    • S. Army Marine Corps, Counterinsurgency Field Manual, University of Chicago Press, 2007.
    • Weir, William, 50 Weapons That Changed Warfare, New Page Books, 2005.

    - Articles

    • Demeyere, Bruno, “Missile Warfare”, Oxford Public International Law (OPIL), 2006, Retrieved from: https://opil.ouplaw.com/view/10.1093/law:epil/9780199231690/law-9780199231690-e339?prd=EPIL
    • Henderson, Ian, “Manual on International Law Applicable to Air and Missile Warfare: A Review”, Military Law and Law of War Review, Vol. 49, Issue 1 & 2, 2010.
    • Orakhelashvili, Alexander, “Unilateral Interpretation of Security Council Resolutions: UK Practice”, Goettingen Journal of International Law, Vol. 2, Issue 3, 2010.
    • Ozga, Deborah A., “A Chronology of the Missile Technology Control Regime”, Nonproliferation Review, Vol. 1, Issue 2, 1998.
    • Parks, W. Hays, “Conventional Weapons and Weapons Reviews”, Yearbook of International Humanitarian Law, Vol. 8, 2005.
    • Robert J. Mathews, “The 1980 Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons: A Useful Framework Despite Earlier Disappointments”, International Review of the Red Cross, Vol. 83, Issue 844, December 2001.
    • Sassòli, Marco, “Autonomous Weapons and International Humanitarian Law: Advantages, Open Technical Questions and Legal Issues to be Clarified”, Naval War College, Vol. 90, 2014.
    • Vershbow, Alexander R., “The Cruise Missile: The End of Arms Control”, Foreign Affairs, Vol. 55, Issue 1, 1974.

    - Cases

    • ICJ Report, Legality of the Threat or Use of Nuclear Weapons, Advisory Opinion, 1996.

    - Instruments

    • Defense Intelligence Agency, Iran Military Power Report, Retrieved from Congressional Research Service website, (2019): https://www.dia.mil/Portals/27/Documents/News/Military%20Power%20Publications/Iran_Military_Power_LR.pdf
    • General Assembly Resolution 54/54, Missile, GA/RES/54/54, (1 December 1999), Retrieved from: https://undocs.org/A/RES/54/54.
    • General Assembly Resolution 55/33, United Nation study on disarmament and non-proliferation education, GA/RES/55/33, (20 November 2000), Retrieved from: https://undocs.org/A/RES/55/33.
    • General Assembly Resolution, The Hague Code of Conduct against Ballistic Missile Proliferation, GA/RES/75/60, (7 December 2020), Retrieved from: https://undocs.org/en/A/RES/75/60.
    • ICRC, “A Guide to the Legal Review of New Weapons, Means and Methods of Warfare: Measures to Implement Article 36 of Additional Protocol I of 1977”, International Review of the Red Cross, January 2006.
    • ICRC, “Commentary on the Additional Protocols of 8 June 1977 to the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949”, International Review of the Red Cross, JUNE 2020.
    • International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC), Protocol Additional to the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949, and relating to the Protection of Victims of International Armed Conflicts (Protocol I), 8 June 1977, Retrieved from: https://www.refworld.org/docid/3ae6b36b4.html.
    • Report of The Secretary-General, The issue of missiles in all its aspects, A/57/229, (23 July 2002), Retrieved from: http://www.undocs.org/A/57/229.
    • Security Council Resolution, (9 June 2010), S/RES/1929.

    - Websites

    • “Ballistic Missile - History of Ballistic Missile”, Retrieved from: https://www.softschools.com/inventions/history/ballistic_missile_history/52/, Last Visit: 6/2020.
    • Arkin, William M., Kristensen, Hans M., “US Deploys New Low-Yield Nuclear Submarine Warhead”, Retrieved from: https://fas.org/blogs/security/2020/01/w76-2deployed/, Last Visit: 6/2020.
    • Davenport, Kelsey, “Worldwide Ballistic Missile Inventories”, Retrieved from: https://www.armscontrol.org/factsheets/missiles, Last Visit: 4/2020.
    • Savelsberg, Ralph, “Massive Improvement’ In Accuracy of Iran Missiles Over Scud-B”, Retrieved from: https://breakingdefense.com/2020/01/massive-improvement-in-accuracy-of-iran-missiles-over-scud-b/; Last Visit: 5/2020.