حفاظت از محیط‌زیست در مخاصمات مسلحانه از دیدگاه کمیسیون حقوق بین الملل و کمیتة بین المللی صلیب سرخ

نوع مقاله : علمی پژوهشی

نویسنده

دانشکده حقوق و علوم سیاسی دانشگاه علامه طباطبایی

10.22066/cilamag.2022.249663

چکیده

محیط‌زیست، قربانی خاموش جنگ است که با تخریب و نابودی آن، سیلی از فجایع گریبان انسان و جوامع بشری را می‌گیرد. پیشرفت علم، این مهم را بیش از پیش برملا و آشکار ساخته و از این ­رو، بحث حفاظت از محیط‌زیست در رابطه با مخاصمات مسلحانه، دگربار در رأس دغدغه‏‌های ‏طرفداران محیط‌زیست و نیز اندیشمندان حقوق بین‌الملل‏ بشردوستانه قرار گرفته است. کمیسیون حقوق بین‌الملل‏ با رویکرد تدوین و توسعة تدریجی حقوق بین‌الملل‏، در 2019 قرائت نخست اصول پیش‌نویس‏ در خصوص حفاظت از محیط‌زیست در رابطه با مخاصمات مسلحانه را منتشر و نیز کمیتة بین‌المللی صلیب سرخ، رهنمودهای سال 1994 خود را در 2020 به­روزرسانی کرد تا نگاهی دوباره و تازه به مقررات حقوق بین‌الملل‏ و به‌طور خاص، حقوق بشردوستانه در این عرصه شده باشد. این مقاله با رویکردی تطبیقی بر این دو مطالعة مهم تمرکز دارد و در پی پاسخ به این پرسش است که تا چه حد پژوهش‏‌های ‏جدید نهادهای مورد اشاره توانسته‌اند‏ در تحقق اهداف خود در ایجاد نظام حقوقی حمایتی مؤثرتر برای حفاظت از محیط‌زیست در زمان مخاصمات مسلحانه موفق عمل کنند. یافته‏‌های ‏مقاله نشان می‌‏دهد که نوآوری‏‌های ‏مندرج در اسناد اشاره­شده می‌‏توانند از حیث هنجاری موجبات حفاظت بیشتر از طبیعت در مخاصمات مسلحانه را فراهم آورند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Protection of the Environment in Armed Conflicts From the Perspective of the International Law Commission and the International Committee of the Red Cross

نویسنده [English]

  • Pouria Askary
ATU
چکیده [English]

The environment is the silent victim of war, which, its destruction, brings a flood of catastrophes to human beings and human societies. Developments in science have made this issue even more apparent, and hence the question of protection of the environment in relation to Armed Conflicts has repeatedly been at the forefront of the concerns of environmentalists as well as International Humanitarian Law scholars. In this respect, in 2019 the UN International Law Commission, with the approach of codifying and progressively developing International Law, published the first reading of its draft principles on protection of the environment in relation to Armed Conflicts. Moreover, in 2020 the International Committee of the Red Cross has updated its 1994 guidelines to take a fresh look at the rules of International Law, and in particular Humanitarian Law in this area. The present article, has focused on the outcomes of these two important projects with a comparative approach and seeks to answer the question of the extent to which new researches conducted by the ILC and the ICRC have been able to achieve their goals of creating a more effective legal protection system for the environment in times of Armed Conflicts. The findings of the article show that the innovations contained in the above-mentioned documents can normatively provide more protection for environment in Armed Conflicts.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Environment
  • Armed Conflicts
  • International Law Commission
  • International Committee of the Red Cross
  • International Humanitarian Law
  • International Environmental Law
  • International Human Rights
  1. - Books

    1. Henckaerts, Jean-Marie, Doswald-Beck, Louise, Customary International Humanitarian Law, vol. 1, Geneva: Cambridge University Press, 2005.
    2. ICRC, Commentary on the Additional Protocols of 8 June 1977 to the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949, Geneva: ICRC Publication, 1987.
    3. ICRC, Guidelines on Protection of Natural Environment in Armed Conflict, Geneva: ICRC Publication, 2020.
    4. ICRC, International Expert Meeting Report: The Principle of Proportionality, Geneva: ICRC Publication, 2018.
    5. ICRC, When Rain Turns to Dust, Geneva: ICRC Publication, 2020.
    6. OHCHR, International Legal Protection of Human Rights in Armed Conflict, New York and Geneva: UN Publication, HR/PUB/11/01, 2011.
    7. UNEP, Protecting the Environment During Armed Conflict: An Inventory and Analysis of International Law, Nairobi: UNEP Publication, 2009.

     

    - Articles

    1. Askari, Pouria, et al., “Human Rights and Enhanced Protection of Cultural Property in the Event of Armed Conflict”, AALCO Journal of International Law, vol. 4, Issue 2, 2015.
    2. Bothe, Michael, et al., “International Law Protecting the Environment During Armed Conflict: Gaps and Opportunities”, International Review of the Red Cross, vol. 92, No. 879, 2010.
    3. Burniske, Jessica S., et al., “Armed Non-State Actors and International Human Rights Law: An Analysis of the Practice of the U.N. Security Council and U.N. General Assembly”, Harvard Law School Program on Int’l Law & Armed Conflict, 2017.
    4. Chin, Shirleen, “Symposium Exploring the Crime of Ecocide: Can Deforestation Amount to Ecocide?”, 2020.
    5. Droege, Cordula, Tougas, Marie-Louise, “The Protection of the Natural Environment in Armed Conflict – Existing Rules and Need for Further Legal Protection”, Nordic Journal of International Law, vol. 82, Issue 1, 2013.
    6. Henckaerts, Jean-Marie, Constantin, Dana, “Protection of the Natural Environment”, In: Clapham, Andrew, et al. (eds.), The Oxford Handbook of International Law in Armed Conflict, Oxford University Press, 2014.
    7. Lehto, Marja, “Overcoming the Disconnect: Environmental Protection and Armed Conflicts”, Humanitarian Law & Policy, 2021.
    8. Mach, Katharine J., et al., “Climate as a Risk Factor for Armed Conflict”, Nature, 571, No. 7764, 2019.
    9. Savaresi, Annalisa, “The UN HRC Recognizes the Right to a Healthy Environment and Appoints a New Special Rapporteur on Human Rights and Climate Change. What Does it All Mean?”, EJIL Talk, 2021.

     

    - Documents

    1. CESCR General Comment No. 14, UN Doc. E/C.12/2000/4, 11 August 2000.
    2. CRC General Comment No. 15, UN Doc. CRC/C/GC/15, 17 April 2013.
    3. First Report on Protection of the Environment in Relation to Armed Conflicts by Marja Lehto, UN Doc. A/CN.4/720, 30 April 2018.
    4. ILC Draft Articles on the Effects of Armed Conflicts on Treaties, ILC Yearbook, vol. II, Part 2, 2011.
    5. ILC Draft Principles on Protection of the Environment in Relation to Armed Conflicts, Adopted by the Commission on First Reading, UN Doc. A/74/10, 2019.
    6. ILC, Yearbook, 2011.
    7. ILC, Yearbook, 2019.
    8. International Law Association, Non-State Actors, Washington Conference,
    9. Joint Statement by Independent United Nations Human Rights Experts on Human Rights Responsibilities of Armed Non-State Actors, 25 February 2021.
    10. Preliminary Report on the Protection of the Environment in Relation to Armed Conflicts Submitted by Marie G. Jacobsson, UN Doc. A/CN.4/674, 30 May 2014.
    11. Report of the Special Rapporteur on the Issue of Human Rights Obligations Relating to the Enjoyment of a Safe, Clean, Healthy and Sustainable Environment, UN Doc. A/HRC/37/59, 24 January 2018.
    12. Second Report on the Protection of the Environment in Relation to Armed Conflicts, UN Doc. A.CN.4/685, 28 May 2015.
    13. Stop Ecocide Foundation, Independent Expert Panel for the Legal Definition of Ecocide, 2021.
    14. UN Doc. A/CN.4/685, 28 May 2015.
    15. UN Doc. A/CN.4/700, 3 June 2016.
    16. UN Doc. A/CN.4/728, 27 March 2019.
    17. UN Doc. A/HRC/RES/19/10, 19 April 2012.
    18. UN Doc. A/HRC/RES/48/13, 18 October 2021.
    19. UN Doc. S/RES/1457, 24 January 2003.

     

    - Judicial Decisions

    1. ICJ, Advisory Opinion on Legality of the Threat or Use of Nuclear Weapons, 1996.
    2. ICJ, Advisory Opinion on Legal Consequences of the Construction of a Wall in the Occupied Palestinian Territory, 2004.
    3. ICJ, Advisory Opinion on Accordance with International Law of the Unilateral Declaration of Independence in Respect of Kosovo, 2010.
    4. ICJ, Judgment in the Case Concerning Armed Activities on the Territory of the Congo, 2005.
    5. The Court of Justice of the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS), Judgment No. ECW/CCJ/JUD/18/12, 14 December 2012.
    6. Inter-American Commission on Human Rights, Resolution 12/85, 5 March 1985
    7. ICTY, Prosecutor v. Delalic and Others, Judgment 16 November 1998
    8. ECHR, Öneryıldız v. Turkey, Judgment 30 November 2004.
    9. ECHR, Application No. 48939/99, Judgment of 30 November 2004.

     

    - Websites

    1. <https://globalclimate.crisisgroup.org>, last seen 6th August 2022.