پروتکل شماره ۱۵ و اصلاح نظام اروپایی حقوق بشر

نوع مقاله: علمی پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری حقوق بین‌الملل عمومی دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، واحد علوم‌وتحقیقات تهران

2 عضو هیئت علمی مدعو گروه حقوق عمومی و بین‌الملل دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، واحد علوم‌‌وتحقیقات تهران

چکیده

کنوانسیون اروپایی حقوق بشر، معاهده پیشرو در حوزه حقوق بشر بوده و نقش بسیار مهمی در توسعه و تحول حقوق بین‌الملل بشر داشته است. این کنوانسیون از زمان لازم‌الاجراشدن در سال 1953 تا کنون تغییرات زیادی به خود دیده است که ازجمله مهم‌ترین آن می‌توان به افزایش شمار کشورهای طرف کنوانسیون و همچنین تشکیل اتحادیه اروپا و سایر نهادهای اروپایی اشاره کرد. این تحولات، لزوم تطابق کنوانسیون با نیازها و ضرورت‌های روز را دوچندان می‌کند. بر این اساس، تا کنون پروتکل‌های زیادی به کنوانسیون منضم شده است. یکی از آخرین پروتکل‌های منضم به کنوانسیون، پروتکل شماره 15 است که در مه ‌2013 پذیرفته شد و در فرایند تصویب قرار دارد و علاوه بر انجام برخی اصلاحات شکلی، اصل فرعیت و دکترین حاشیه صلاحدید را به مقدمه کنوانسیون اضافه کرده است. در این مقاله، نقش پروتکل شماره 15 در توسعه و تحول نظام اروپایی حقوق بشر و تغییرات شکلی و ماهوی که در کنوانسیون اروپایی حقوق بشر ایجاد کرده است، بررسی می­شود.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Protocol No. 15 and Amendment of the European Human Rights System

نویسندگان [English]

  • Ayyoub Abdi 1
  • Seyed Ghasem Zamani 2
چکیده [English]

European Convention on Human Rights is one of the most important conventions in the field of human rights and has a significant role in the development of international human rights law. From its entering into force in 1953, the Convention has faced with many challenges, such as increasing the parties to the Convention of European Council and the establishment of the European Union which requires amending and updating of the convention. Therefore, by now, many protocols have been attached to the convention. The most recent one is protocol no. 15 adopted in May 2013 that is currently in the process of ratification by contracting parties. In addition to some structural amendments, the protocol was added to the preamble of the conventions’ references to both the margin of appreciation and subsidiarity. In this article, the protocol no. 15 and its role in amending the European Human Rights Law are analyzed.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Margin of Appreciation
  • Principle of Subsidiarity
  • Protocol No. 15
  • European Convention on Human Rights
  • European Court of Human Rights

الف) فارسی

ـ کتاب

  • زمانی، سید‌قاسم، امیرساعد وکیل و پوریا عسکری؛ نهادها و سازوکارهای منطقه‌ای حمایت از حقوق بشر، شهر دانش، 1386.

 

ـ مقاله

  • سادات‌اخوی، سید‌علی؛ «پروتکل شماره 14 و اصلاح نظام نظارتی کنوانسیون اروپایی حقوق بشر»، مجله دانشکده حقوق‌وعلوم‌سیاسی دانشگاه تهران، شماره 70، زمستان 1384.

 

ب) انگلیسی

- Books

  • Diego Rodríguez-Pinzón and Claudia Martin, “The Inter-American Human Rights System: Selected Examples of Its Supervisory Work”, in: Research Handbook on International Human Rights Law, Edited by Sarah Joseph, Edward Elgar, 2010.
  • Francisco Forrest Martin, International Human Rights and Humanitarian Law: Treaties, Cases and Analysis, Cambridge University Press, 2006.
  • G. Martinico and O. Pollicino, The National Judicial Treatment of the ECHR and EU Laws,A Comparative Constitutional Perspective,Europa Law Publishing, 2010.
  • H. Petzold, “The Convention and the Principle of Subsidiarity”, in R. St. J. Macdonald, F. Matscher and H. Petzold (eds.), The European System for the Protection of Human Rights (Dordrecht/Boston/London: Martinus Nijhoff, 1993.
  • Howard Charles Yourow, The Margin of Appreciation Doctrine in the Dynamics of European Human Rights Jurisprudence, Martinus Nijhoff. The Hague, 1996.
  • Letsas, George, A Theory of Interpretation of the European Convention of Human Right, Oxford University Press, 2007.

 

- Articles

  • Benvenisti, Eyal, “Margin of Appreciation, Consensus, and Universal Standards”, Journal of International Law and Politics, vol. 31, No. 4, 1999.
  • Eva Berms, “The Margin of Appreciation Doctrine in the Case-Law of the European Court of Human Rights”, (1996)Heidelberg Journal of International Law, 56, 1993.
  • Federico Fabbrini, “The Constitutionalization of International Law: A Comparative Federal Prespective”, European Journal of Legal Studies, vol. 6, Issue 2.
  • Helfer L., Slaughter A. M., “Toward a Theory of Effective Supranational Adjudication”, 107 Yale Law Journal, 1997.
  • Howard Charles Yourow, “The Margin of Appreciation Doctrine in the Dynamics of European Human Rights Jurisprudence”, Connecticut Journal of International Law, vol. 3, 1987,
  • J. A. Sweeney, “Margins of Appreciation: Cultural Relativity and the European Court of Human Rights in the Post-Cold War Era”, International and Comparative Law Quarterly, vol. 54, Issue 2, 2005.
  • Jan Kratochvíl, “The Inflation of the Margin of Appreciation by the European Court of Human Rights”, Netherlands Quarterly of Human Rights, vol. 3/29, 2011.
  • Janneke Gerards, “Pluralism, Deference and the Margin of Appreciation Doctrine”, European Law Journal, vol. 17, No. 1, January 2011.
  • Lookwood, Finn & Jubisky, “Working Paper for Committee of Experts on Limitation Provisions”, 7 HumanRights Quarterly, 1984.
  • Paolo G. Carozza, “Subsidiarity as a Structural Principle of International Human Rights Law”, American Journal of International Law, 2003, vol. 97, No.1.
  • Robert Spano, “Universality or Diversity of Human Rights? Strasburg in the Age of Subsidiarity”, HumanRights Law Review, vol.4, Issue 3, 2014.
  • Spielmann Dean, “Whither the Margin of Appreciation?” UCL Current Legal Problems (CLP) Lecture, 2014, p. 11, available at: www.coe.int/Document/Speech-20140320-London-ENG.pdf (last visited February. 29, 2016).
  • Spielmann Dean, “Allowing the Right Margin: The European Court of Human Rights and the National Margin of Appreciation Doctrine: Waver or Subsidiarity of European Review?” Max Plank Institute for Comparative Public and International Law, Heidelberg, 13 December 2013.
  • Steven Greer,The Margin of Appreciation: Interpretation and Discretion under the European Convention of Human Rights, Council of Europe Publishing, Human Rights Files, No. 17, 2000.
  • Tümay, Mura, “The Margin of Appreciation Doctrine Developed by the Case Law of the European Court of Human Rights, Ankara Law Review, 2008, vol. 5 No. 2.

 

- Documents

  • Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms (European Convention on Human Rights: ECHR)
  • Protocol No. 15 Amending the Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental.
  • Explanatory Report Protocol No. 15 Amending the Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms.
  • Opinion of the Court on Draft Protocol No. 15 to the European Convention on Human Rights, 6 February 2013.
  • Joint NGO Statement: “Protocol No. 15 to the Convention for the Protection of Human Rights Must Not Result in Weakening of Human Rights Protection”, 24 June 2013.
  • Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union.