نقض بنیادین در قراردادهای بیع اسنادی: دکترین انطباق دقیق ارائه در حقوق اعتبارات اسنادی و قرارداد پایه بیع

نوع مقاله: علمی پژوهشی

نویسنده

استادیار دانشکده حقوق دانشگاه شهید بهشتی

چکیده

قراردادهای بیع اسنادی که بیع «سیف» و بیع «فوب» از نمونه­های برجستة آن است، دو تعهد جداگانه و مستقل از هم را بر دوش فروشنده می‌نهد: تعهد به تسلیم کالای منطبق با قرارداد و تعهد به تسلیم اسناد منطبق با قرارداد. ایفای هیچ‌یک از این دو تعهد، به معنای ایفای تعهد دیگر نیست، چندان که نقض هریک از این دو تعهد نیز، حقوق و ضمانت اجراهای خاص نقض آن تعهد را در اختیار متعهدله (خریدار) می‌گذارد. آن هنگام که در چارچوب قراردادهای بیع اسنادی همچون «سیف» و «فوب» از اعتبار اسنادی به‌عنوان روش پرداخت ثمن استفاده می‌شود، فروشنده به‌منظور امکان دریافت وجه اعتبار باید موبه‌مو از مفاد و شروط اعتبار تبعیت کند؛ الزامی که از آن با نام «اصل لزوم انطباق دقیق ارائه» یاد می‌شود. لازمه اعمال دکترین انطباق دقیق ارائه در حقوق اعتبارات اسنادی آن است که حتی عدم انطباق‌ها و مغایرت‌های جزئی نیز به بانک اجازه می‌دهد، بلکه بانک را نسبت به متقاضی اعتبار مکلف می‌کند، ارائه اسناد حمل را نپذیرد و مبلغ اعتبار را نپردازد. سؤال آن است که آیا دکترین انطباق دقیق ارائه اسناد حمل، آن‌چنان‌که در حقوق اعتبارات اسنادی و در ارائه‌ای که به بانک صورت می‌گیرد، جاری است در قرارداد بیع نیز قابلیت اعمال دارد. چنانچه فروشنده، اسناد منطبق با اعتبار را به بانک ارائه نکند، و مورد یا موارد مغایرت و ناهمخوانی موجود در اسناد را در موعد مقرر رفع نکند، آیا می‌توان عمل فروشنده را از لحاظ قرارداد پایه بیع، علاوه بر نقض اعتبار اسنادی، نقض اساسی قرارداد بیع به مفهوم مقرر در کنوانسیون بیع بین‌المللی کالا (وین، 1980) نیز توصیف کرد، و ضمانت اجرای مربوط به نقض بنیادین را به خریدار اعطا کرد.
 

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Fundamental Breach in Documentary Sales Contracts: The Doctrine of Strict Compliance in Letters of Credit Law and the Underlying Sales Contract

نویسنده [English]

  • Mashallah Bana-Niasari
چکیده [English]

Documentary Sales Contracts including “CIF” and “FOB” sales as the typical case, impose twofold separate and independent obligations on the sellers: the obligation to the delivery of conforming goods, and obligation to present complying documents. Fulfilling each of these obligations does not discharge the other. Consequently, the breach of each of them confers on the buyer remedies specific to the breached obligation. When the contracting parties use letters of credit in documentary sales contract as a payment method of price, the seller as the beneficiary of the credit must comply strictly with terms and conditions of the letter of credit to pay the amount of credit. This requirement is known as “standard of strict compliance” in letters of credit law. As a result of applying the standard of strict compliance in letters of credit law, the most trivial discrepancy allows, even requires, a bank to reject the documents for non-conformity with the letter of credit. This paper seeks to answer this question whether the standard of strict compliance, as applied in letters of credit, must have effect in sales contract as well. Furthermore, in the event that seller presents non-conforming documents to the bank, and does not cure the non-conformities of documents in proper time, whether his action could be characterized as fundamental breach of sale contract in the sense of this concept in CISG, and consequently, whether we can confer the relevant remedy, i.e. the right of avoidance on the buyer are discussed.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Documentary Sales
  • Letter of Credit
  • Standard of Strict Compliance
  • Fundamental Breach
  • CISG

 

- Books

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