قابلیت پذیرش ادله غیرقانونی در حقوق بین الملل: بررسی موردی اسناد ویکی لیکس

نوع مقاله : علمی پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 عضو هیات علمی دانشکده روابط بین الملل وزارت امور خارجه

2 کارشناسی ارشد رشته دیپلماسی و سازمان های بین المللی گرایش حقوق بین الملل، دانشکده روابط بین الملل وزارت امور خارجه

10.22066/cilamag.2022.251944

چکیده

ادلة‌ اثبات دعوا نقش ­بسزایی در پیشبرد اجرای عدالت در دادرسی ­های بین‌المللی دارد. در دعاوی بین‌الدولی این دولت‌ها هستند که خود به‌عنوان اطراف دعوا اقدام به تحصیل و ارائة ادله می‌کنند و گاهی احتمال دارد که یکی از طرف‌‌ها با نقض حقوق بین­ الملل، اقدام به جمع‌‌آوری ادله کند. قابلیت پذیرش ادلة تحصیل‌شدة غیرقانونی، موضوعی بحث‌برانگیز در رویه‌‌قضایی و آموزه‌های علمای حقوق بین‌الملل است. ازجمله این موضوع اخیراً با انتشار اسناد دیپلماتیک از طریق تارنمای ویکی­لیکس مورد بحث قرار گرفته است. در برخی از قضایای بین‌المللی، اصحاب دعوا کوشیده­اند از این تلگراف‌ها به‌عنوان دلیل اثبات حقیقت در محضر دادگاه‌های بین‌المللی و داخلی بهره جویند. پژوهش حاضر تلاش دارد تا به این سؤال پاسخ دهد که قابلیت پذیرش تلگراف­ های دیپلماتیک افشاشده در رویة دادرسی­ های قضایی بین ­المللی چه جایگاهی دارد. مقاله نشان می­دهد که علی‌رغم اهمیت ­یافتن ادلة‌ اثبات دعوا، تا زمانی که اطراف دعوا ایراداتی را بر ادلة ارائه‌شده مطرح نکنند، دادگاه­ ها و دیوان­ های بین­ المللی اکراه دارند که به ابتکار خود، قابلیت پذیرش ادلة ارائه‌شده را بررسی کنند. در این پژوهش در وهلة نخست، مبانی نظری قابلیت پذیرش ادلة تحصی ل­شدة غیرقانونی در حقوق بین­ الملل بررسی و سپس به رویة بین ­المللی در خصوص قابلیت پذیرش تلگراف ­های دیپلماتیک افشاشده پرداخته شده است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The Admissibility of Illegally Obtained Evidence in International Law: A Case Study of WikiLeaks Documents

نویسندگان [English]

  • Seyed Hossein Sadat Meidani 1
  • Nadia Molanasab 2
1 استادیار
2 MA in Diplomacy and International Organizations, major in International Law and International Economic Organisatons, from International School of Ministry of Foreign Affairs.
چکیده [English]

Law of Evidence plays a significant role in advancing the implementation of justice in International Proceedings. In international claims, the states collect and present the evidence as the litigants. It is conceivable that one of the parties violates International Law and the other party's rights to obtain evidence through illegal methods. In this regard, the admissibility of illegally obtained evidence has become a controversial issue in jurisprudence and International Law doctrines. This issue has been discussed recently with the diplomatic cables leak through the WikiLeaks website. In some international proceedings, the litigants have tried to use the cables as evidence to prove a fact before international and domestic courts. The present article aims to answer this question: what is the status of the admissibility of disclosed diplomatic cables in the procedure of international judicial proceedings? This article shows that despite the importance of finding the evidence in substantiation of claims, in international judicial proceedings, the international courts and tribunals are reluctant to accept them on their own initiative until the litigants raise objections to that evidence.
 In this study, first of all, the theoretical foundations of the admissibility of illegally obtained evidence in International Law have been explained. Then the international practices regarding the admissibility of disclosed diplomatic cables have been illuminated.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Law of Evidence
  • Admissibility
  • Illegally Obtained Evidence
  • Diplomatic Cables Leak
  • WikiLeaks
  • International Proceedings
  1. منابع:

    الف. فارسی

    ـ کتاب

    1. ذوالعین، پرویز؛ حقوق دیپلماتیک، چاپ ششم، مرکز آموزش و پژوهش­های بین ­المللی، 1394.
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    ـ مقاله

    1. سادات میدانی، سیدحسین؛ «مجموعه مقالات پیرامون رأی دیوان بین ­المللی دادگستری در قضیة سکوهای نفتی دعوا جمهوری اسلامی ایران علیه ایالات متحدة امریکا»، دفتر مطالعات حقوقی، مرکز پژوهش‌‌های مجلس شورای اسلامی، شمارة 46، 1384.

     

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    - Articles

    1. Bertrou, Gregoire, Alekhin, Sergey, “The Admissibility of Unlawfully Obtained Evidence in International Arbitration: Does the End Justify the Means?”, The Paris Journal of International Arbitration, 2018.
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    - Case Law

    1. Al Matri v. Council, Case T-200/11, ECLI: EU: T: 2013:275.
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    1. Prosecutor v. Taylor, SCSL, Decision on Public with Confidential Annexes A and B, Prosecution Motion to Call Three Additional Witnesses, Case No. SCSL-03-01-T-993, 29 June 2010.
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    3. Prosecutor v. Taylor, The Special Court for Sierra Leone (SCSL), Decision on the Urgent and Public with Annexes A-C, Defence Motion to Re-Open its Case in Order to Seek Admission of Documents Relating to the Relationship between the United States Government and the Prosecution of Charles Taylor, Case No. SCSL-03-01-T-1171, 27 January 2011.
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    - Documents

    1. Agreement on the Privileges and Immunities of the International Criminal Court 2002, 2271 UNTS 3, Adopted 9 September 2002.
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    10. Statute of the International Court of Justice.
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    - Website

    1. Clinton, Hillary, Consulate General of the United States, Eurasian University in Astana, Kazakhstan, 30 November 2010.
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    6. Freehills, Herbert Smith, García-Perrote, Guillermo, “Admissibility of Hacked Evidence in International Arbitration”, Kluwer Arbitration Blog, 7 July 2021.
    7. The Guardian, U.S. Embassy Cables: The Protracted Case against Charles Taylor, 15 April 2009, at: <https://www.theguardian.com/world/us-embassy-cables-documents/202468>, last seen 28th July 2022.