مشروعیت مجازات سلب تابعیت از منظر حقوق بین‌الملل با واکاوی اقدام دولت بحرین

نوع مقاله: علمی پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشیار دانشکده روابط بین الملل وزارت امور خارجه

2 دانشجوی دکتری حقوق بین الملل دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، واحد تهران شمال

10.22066/cilamag.2018.31685

چکیده

حق بر تابعیت، یکی از حق‌های بنیادین و اساسی بشری محسوب شده و از آن به‌عنوان «حق بر داشتن حقوق» تعبیر می‌شود. امروزه این موضوع که هر کشوری بر اساس قوانین داخلی خود، شرایط کسب و سلب تابعیت خود را تعیین می‌کند، اصل پذیرفته‌شدة بین‌المللی شده است. با اوج‌گیری حملات تروریستی در سال‌های اخیر و متعاقب آن، تصویب قوانین سلب تابعیت با هدف مجازات چنین اعمالی ازجمله در فرانسه و همچنین اقدام دولت بحرین در سلب تابعیت مخالفین سیاسی آن کشور، مقاله حاضر به دنبال پاسخ به این سؤال است که آیا مجازات سلب تابعیت از منظر حقوق بین‌الملل مشروعیت دارد؟ سلب تابعیت درصورتی‌که با رعایت سه قاعده عرفی بین‌المللی منع خودسرانه‌بودن، منع تبعیض و اجتناب از بی‌تابعیتی همراه باشد، مشروع، و در صورت مغایرت با این قواعد، نامشروع خواهد بود. اقدام دولت بحرین نیز با توجه به خودسرانه و تبعیض‌آمیزبودن، نامشروع است. رویه دولت‌ها مبنی بر عدم تمایل به سلب تابعیت به‌عنوان مجازات، در حال تغییر است.
 

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The Legitimacy of Deprivation of Nationality as a Punishment from the Perspective of International Law by Analyzing the Government of Bahrain’s Action

نویسندگان [English]

  • Reza Mousazadeh 1
  • Hamed Golijani Moghaddam 2
1 Associate Professor in International Law, Faculty of International Affairs, Ministry of Foreign Affairs
2 Corresponding Author, Ph.D. student in International Law, Islamic Azad University, North Tehran Branch
چکیده [English]

The right to nationality is the basic and fundamental human rights and it may be interpreted as the right to have rights. Nowadays, the fact that each State determines the conditions of acquisition or loss of its nationality according to its own laws has become an internationally accepted principle. With the increase in terrorist attacks in recent years and the subsequent legislation on the laws of deprivation of nationality aimed at punishing such actions, including in France, as well as the government of Bahrain’s actions in deprivation of the nationality of its political opponents, the present article seeks to answer the question of whether the ban on deprivation of nationality is legitimate under international law? Deprivation of nationality is legitimate if it abides by the three rules of customary international law including the prohibition of arbitrary deprivation of nationality, non-discrimination and avoidance of statelessness and in case of violation of these rules would be illegitimate. Bahrain's government action is illegitimate due to its arbitrary and discriminatory nature. States practice for unwillingness toward the deprivation of nationality as a punishment is changing.
 
 
 

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Keywords: International Law
  • Deprivation of Nationality
  • human rights
  • Statelessness
  • The Prohibition of Arbitrary Deprivation of Nationality

الف. فارسی

  • ارفع‌نیا، بهشید؛ حقوق بین‌الملل خصوصی، تابعیت اقامتگاه و وضع بیگانگان، جلد اول، چاپ سوم، بهتاب،1382.
  • آل‌­کجباف، حسین؛ تابعیت در ایران و سایر کشورها، چاپ دوم، جنگل،1393.
  • سلجوقی، محمود؛ بایسته‌های حقوق بین‌الملل خصوصی، چاپ چهارم، میزان، 1385.
  • نصیری، محمد؛ حقوق بین‌الملل خصوصی، چاپ دوم، آگاه،1376.

ب. انگلیسی

- Books:

  • Brownline, Ian, Principle of Public International Law, Oxford University Press, 2003.
  • Edward, Alice and Van Waas, Laura, Nationality and Statelessness under International Law, Cambridge University Press. 2014. Reprint Editon 31 March 2016, ISBN-10:1316601137.
  • Sandra, Mantu, Contingent Citizenship: The Law and Practice of Citizenship Deprivation in International, European and National Perspectives, BRILL, Leiden, Netherlands, 2015, ISBN10: 9004292993.
  • Van Panhuys, Haro Fredrik, The Role of Nationality in International Law, the Netherlands, Leyden, A.W. Sythoff, 1959.
  • Weis, Paul, Nationality and Statelessness in International Law, Kluwer Academic Publishers Group, 1979, ISBN-10-9028603298.

- Articles:

  • Aiena, Caterina, “Stripping of Nationality as a Weapon of Political Suppression: The Cases of Bahrain, United Kingdom, United Arab Emirates and Kuwait”, First Published in Great Britain by Islamic Human Rights Commission, P.O. Box 598, Wembley, HA9 7XH, October 2014.
  • Adjama, Mirna and Harington, Julia, “The Scope and Content of Article 15 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights”, Refugee Survey Quarterly, University of North Dakota, 2006, Avaliable at: www.rsq.oxfordjournals.org.
  • Bachelor, Carol, “Statelessness and the Problem of Resolving Nationality Status”, International Journal of Refugee Law, Published Oxord Journals, vol. 10, 1998, Available at: Oxford Journals, Published in Print: January, 1998, ISSN:0953-8186.
  • Bery, Adrian, “Deprivation of Nationality and Citizenship, The Role of EU Law”, Journal of Immigration, Asylum and Nationality Law, 2014, vol. 28, No. 4, ISSN: 17467632.
  • Bowler, Natasha, “When Bahrain Says You Are Not Bahraini Anymore”, 18 August 2015, www.foreignpolicy.com.
  • Lambert, Hélène, “Arbitrary Deprivation of Nationality and Refugee Status: Comparative Perspectives on the Overlap between Statelessness and Refugee Status”, Westminster Law School, University of Westminster, the Netherlands, 2014.
  • Lambert, Hélène, “Refugee Status, Arbitrary Deprivation of Nationality, and Statelessness within the Context of Article 1A(2) of the 1951 Convention and Its 1967 Protocol Relating to the Status of Refugees”, University of Westminster, London, England, 2014.
  • Hall, Stephen, “The European Convention on Nationality and the Right to Have Rights”, European Law Review, London, December 1999.
  • María José Recalde Vela, “How Far Has the Protection of the Right to Nationality under International Human Rights Law Progressed from 1923 until the Present Day?”, LLM International and European Law, Supervisor: Laura Van Waas, Tilburg Law Review, Netherlands, 2014.
  • Mcdougal, Myres S. and Lasswell, Harold D. and Lung-Chu Chen, “Nationality and Human Rights: The Protection of the Individual and External Arenas”, Yale Law School Legal Scholarship Repository, 1974.
  • Molnár, Tamás, “The Prohibition of Arbitrary Deprivation of Nationality under International Law and EU Law: New Perspectives”, Hungarian Yearbook of International Law and European Law, 2014, Eleven International Publishing Portland, 2014, ISBN-978-94-6236-503-2.
  • Pilgram, Lisa, “International Law and European Nationality Laws”, Published in Italy, European University Institute Badia, March 2011.
  • Sandra, Mantu, “Deprivation of Citizenship from the Perspective of International and European Legal Standards”, ENACT Consortium FP7-SSH-2007-1-217504-ENACT/D4.2, 2007.
  • Spiro, Peter J., “A New International Law of Citizenship”, American Journal of International Law, 2011. DOI: 10.5305/amerjintelaw. 105.4.0694.
  • United State Office of Personnel Management Investigations Services, “Citizenship Law of the World”, March 2001, www.multiplecitizenship.com.
  • Van Waas, Laura, “Nationality Matters: Statelessness under International Law”, School of Human Rights Research, vol. 29, Antwerp: Portland, Intersentia, 2008.

- Documents:

  • American Convention on Human Rights, 1969.
  • Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities, 2006.
  • Convention Relating to the Status of Stateless Persons, 1954.
  • Convention on the Reduction of the Statelessness, 1961.
  • Convention on the Nationality of the Married Women, 1957.
  • Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination, 1965.
  • Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women, 1979.
  • Convention on the Rights of the Child, 1989.
  • Convention on Certain Questions Relating to the Conflict of Nationality Laws, Signed at the Hague, on 12 April 1930.
  • Declaration of the Rights of the Child 1959.
  • European Convention on Nationality, November 1997.
  • International Convention Civil and Political Rights, 1966.
  • International Convention on the Protection of the Rights of All Migrant Workers and Members of Their Families, 1990.
  • Report of the Secretary-General on Human Rights and Arbitrary Deprivation of Nationality-A/HRC/10/34.
  • Report of the Secretary-General on Human Rights and Arbitrary Deprivation of Nationality-A/HRC/13/34.
  • Report of Secretary-General on Human Rights and Arbitrary Deprivation of Nationality-A/HRC/19/43.
  • Report on Discrimination against Women on Nationality-Related Matters, Including the Impact on Children-HRC/23/23.
  • Report of the Secretary-General on Human Rights and Arbitrary Deprivation of Nationality-A/HRC/25/28.
  • Revised Arab Charter on Human Rights, 2004.
  • The Commonwealth of Independent States Conventions on Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms, 1995.
  • UN Human Rights Council Resolution 7/10 of 27 March 2008, and Resolution 10/13 of 26 March 2009, Resolution 13/2 of 14 April 2010, Resolution 20/4 on the Right to a Nationality: Women and Children 2012, Resolution 20/5 of 16 July 2012, Resolution 26/14 of 11 July 2014, Resolution 32/l.8, 24 June 2016.
  • Universal Declaration of Human Rights, 1948.