تخریب میراث فرهنگی سوریه توسط داعش و راهکارهای مقابله با آن در حقوق بین‌الملل

نوع مقاله: علمی پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 نویسنده مسئول، استادیار دانشکده حقوق و علوم سیاسی دانشگاه علامه طباطبایی

2 کارشناسی‌ ارشد حقوق بین‌الملل از دانشگاه تربیت مدرس

10.22066/cilamag.2018.31686

چکیده

بحران سوریه از وجوه مختلفی قابل مطالعه و بررسی است. البته بدیهی است که از دریچه حقوق بین‌الملل، آنچه در این بحران، بسیار مشهود و بارز به نظر می‌رسد، نقض گسترده و همه‌جانبه حقوق بشردوستانه و ایراد آسیب و صدمات سنگین به غیرنظامیان و مردم عادی است که جان و مال و خانه و کاشانه خود را به دلیل جنگی خانمان­سوز از دست دادند و آن‌ها که خوش­اقبال‌تر بودند، به جستجوی رهایی از ترس و جنگ، آوارة سایر کشورهای نزدیک و دور شدند. از سوی دیگر، جنگ سوریه، میراث فرهنگی غنی این کشور را که روزی میراثی جهانی محسوب می‌شد، به تلّی از خاک تبدیل کرده تا یادآور گوشه‌ای از جنایاتی باشد که در این جنگ بر مردم سوریه روا داشته شد.
در میان بازیگران مختلفی که در این مخاصمه گسترده دخیل هستند، گروه افراطی داعش است که در کارنامه جنایات متعدد خود، تخریب و غارت آثار و میراث فرهنگی سوریه را نیز درج کرده است؛ میراثی که بی‌تردید، به‌عنوان میراث بشری مورد حمایت حقوق بین‌الملل بوده و نابودی و چپاول آن از ابعاد مختلف به­مثابه جنایت جنگی و جنایت علیه بشریت است. در این مقاله، با اشاره به فجایع رخ­داده برای میراث فرهنگی سوریه، راهکارهای حقوق بین‌الملل در برخورد با این مصائب، جستجو شده‌ است.
 
 

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

International Law and the Destruction of Syria’s Cultural Heritage by ISIS

نویسندگان [English]

  • Pouria Askari 1
  • Hamid Masoudi Koushk 2
1 Corresponding Author, Assistant Professor in International Law, Faculty of Law and Political Science, Allameh Tabataba’i University
2 Master of International Law, Tarbiat Modarres University
چکیده [English]

The article provides an overview of ISIS attacks against the cultural heritage of Syria and classifies these attacks as war crimes and crimes against humanity. The cultural property as defined in this article are protected under many international law instruments such as the Hague Convention of 1954 and its 1999 Additional Protocol but the question to be answered is the applicability of the international treaties to non-state actors involved in contemporary armed conflicts such as ISIS.
To answer this question, the authors have studied a wide range of international documents such as the Resolutions of the UNSC and Awards rendered by international criminal tribunals and finally have reached a positive answer to the above-mentioned question. The article also contains some practical alternatives to deal with violations of IHL committed by non-state armed groups.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Keywords: ISIS
  • Syria
  • Cultural Heritage
  • war crimes
  • Crimes against Humanity
  • Protection

الف. فارسی

ـ کتاب

  • فروغی، فضل‌الله و کیوان غنی؛ «جنایت جنگی علیه میراث فرهنگی در مخاصمه مسلحانه سوریه»، مطالعات حقوق کیفری و جرم‌شناسی، دوره 2، شماره 4و 5، پاییز و زمستان 1394.
  • کسسه، آنتونیو؛ حقوق کیفری بین‌المللی، ترجمه: حسین پیران، اردشیر امیر‌ارجمند و زهرا موسوی، جنگل، 1387.
  • ممتاز، جمشید و فریده شایگان؛ حقوق بین‌الملل بشردوستانه در برابر چالش‌های مخاصمات مسلحانه عصر حاضر، شهر دانش، 1393.
  • هنکرتز، ژان ماری و لوئیس دوسوالدبک؛ حقوق بین‌الملل بشردوستانه عرفی، ترجمه: قوه قضاییه و کمیته بین‌المللی صلیب سرخ، مجد، 1391.

 

ب. انگلیسی

- Books:

  • Boylan, Patrick, Review of the Convention for the Protection of Cultural Property in the Event of Armed Conflict (The Hague Convention of 1954), UNESCO, 1993.
  • Moir, Lindsay, The Law of Internal Armed Conflicts, Oxford, 2002.
  • O’Keefe, Roger, The Protection of Cultural Property in Armed Conflict, Cambridge University Press, 2006.
  • Pictet, Jean, Geneva Convention for the Amelioration of the Condition of the Wounded and Sick in Armed Forces in the Field, Commentary, International Committee of the Red Cross, 1952.
  • Pictet, Jean, Geneva Convention for the Amelioration of the Condition of Wounded, Sick and Shipwrecked Members of Armed Forces at Sea, Commentary, International Committee of the Red Cross, 1960.
  • Pictet, Jean, Geneva Convention Relative to the Protection of Civilian Persons in Time of War, Commentary, International Committee of the Red Cross, 1958.
  • Pictet, Jean, Geneva Convention Relative to the Treatment of Prisoners of War, Commentary, International Committee of the Red Cross, 1960.
  • Saba, Hanna, G. Salame, Nabil, The Protection of Movable Cultural Property, Compendium of Legislative Texts, vol. I, UNESCO, 1st ed., Paris 1984.
  • Santander Declaration, The Protection of Syria’s Heritage, Santander, 25 April 2014.
  • Toman, Jiri, Cultural Property in War: Improvement in Protection, Commentary on the 1999 Second Protocol to the Hague Convention of 1954 for the Protection of Cultural Property in the Event of Armed Conflict, UNESCO, 2009.
  • Toman, Jiri, The Protection of Cultural Property in the Event of Armed Conflict, Commentary on the Convention for the Protection of Cultural Property in the Event of Armed Conflict and its Protocol, Signed on 14 May 1954 in The Hague, and on Other Instruments of International Law Concerning Such Protection, UNESCO, 1996.

- Articles:

  • Abi Akl, Abboud, “The Pulse of the Middle East, Looters Find Path to Export Antiquities via Lebanon”, Al-monitor, July 30, 2015.
  • AFP in Beirut, “ISIS Reaches Gates of Ancient Syrian City Palmyra, Stoking Fears of Destruction”, The Guardian, 14 May 2015.
  • Agence France-Presse in Moscow, “Russia’s Air Force Bombs ISIS Base Near Ancient City of Palmyra”, The Guardian, 2 November 2015.
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  • Heritage for Peace, “Damage to Syria’s Heritage, 01 June 2014”, Destruction of the Synagogue of the Prophet Elijah in Jobar, Damascus, Seems Confirmed, http://www.heritageforpeace.org.
  • Heritage for Peace, “Damage to Syria’s Heritage, 03 August 2014”, Additional Historic Buildings Damaged.
  • Heritage for Peace, “Damage to Syria’s Heritage, 12 July 2016”, Palmyra Updates.
  • Heritage for Peace, “Damage to Syria’s heritage, 08 May 2014”, Damage to the Old City of Aleppo.
  • Heritage for Peace, “Damage to Syria's heritage, 11 April, 2014”.
  • Heritage for Peace, “Damage to Syria’s Heritage, 01 June 2014”, Further Reports of Damage to Crac Des Chevaliers.
  • Heritage for Peace, “Damage to Syria's Heritage, 26 March 2014”, World Heritage Castle Crac des Chevaliers Taken by Syrian Regime Troops.
  • Heritage for Peace, “Damage to Syria's Heritage, 31 May 2016”, Damage reported at Maarat Al Numan, Aleppo.
  • Lostal, Marina, “Syria’s World Cultural Heritage and Individual Criminal Responsibility”, International Review of Law, 2015.
  • Mezzofiore, Gianluca, “ISIS in Palmyra: Syrian Antiquities Director Denies Reports of Islamic State Destruction”, International Business Times, May 28, 2015.
  • Nour, Al-Rafee, “Syria: ISIS Palmyra Demolition Has Begun with Ancient God Lion Statue Destroyed”, International Business Times, 27 May 2015.
  • Roggio, Bill, “ISIS Announces Formation of Caliphate, Rebrands as Islamic State”, Threat Matrix, A Blog of the Long War Journal, 29 June 2014.
  • Scammell, Rosie, “Create UN Military Unit to Protect Ancient Sites from ISIS, Says Italy, World’s Archaeological Heritage Needs Protection by UN ‘Blue Helmets of Culture’ Force Akin to Peacekeepers, Says Culture Minister Dario Franceschini”, The Guardian, 19 March 2015.
  • Simms, Marc, “ISIS: Background, Ideology and Capabilities”, 30 June 2014, Security and Defence, Issue 2, No. 6.
  • Withnall, Adam,“Middle East: ISIS in Palmyra: British Museum Deeply Distressed by Destruction of Baalshamin Temple; ISIS Is Reported to Have Destroyed the Baalshamin Temple in Palmyra, Which Stood Almost Completely Intact For Nearly 2,000 Years”, Independent, 24 August 2015.
  • Withnall, Adam, “Middle East: ISIS in Palmyra: Militants Release First Images Showing Destruction of Baalshamin Temple, UNESCO Has Described the Attack on Syria's Cultural History, Reported by Activists on Sunday, as a War Crime”, Independent, 25 August 2015.

- International Awards and Instruments:

  • ICC, The Prosecutor v. Ahmad Al Faqi Al Mahdi, ICC-01/12-01/15, 27 September 2016 (ICC-PIDS-CIS-MAL-01-07/16_Eng).
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  • ICTY, Prosecutor v. Pavle Strugar, Case No. IT-01-42-T, Trial Chamber II, Judgment, 31 January 2005.
  • ICTY, Prosecutor v. Tadic, Case No. IT-94-1, Appeals Chamber, Decision on Defence Motion for Interlocutory Appeal on Jurisdiction, 2 October 1995.
  • ICTY, Prosecutor v. Tadic, Case No. IT-94-1-T, Trial Chamber, Opinion and Judgment, 7 May 1997.
  • ICTY, Prosecutor v. Tihomir Bla[ki], Trial Chamber, Judgment, Case No. IT-95-14-T, 3 March 2000.
  • Syrian Arab Republic-Ministry of Culture, Directorate-general of Antiquities & Museums, The UN Adopt Resolution Banned All Trade in Antiquities from Syria, 12/02/2015.
  • Syrian Arab Republic-Ministry of Culture, Directorate-general of Antiquities & Museums; Photos: Damage in the Seray Building in Damascus Countryside, 04/11/2014.
  • Syrian Arab Republic-Ministry of Culture, Directorate-general of Antiquities & Museums; Bombing Carried out at Ancient City of Damascus, 26/02/2015.
  • Syrian Arab Republic-Ministry of Culture, Directorate-general of Antiquities & Museums; A Massive Blast in Bosra Ancient City, 02/12/2014.
  • Syrian Arab Republic-Ministry of Culture, Directorate-general of Antiquities & Museums; Updating Information on the Blast Occurred at Bosra, 11/12/2014.
  • Syrian Arab Republic-Ministry of Culture, Directorate-general of Antiquities & Museums; Palmyra: ISIS Members Destroyed Famous Lion-Shaped Al-Lat Statue, 30/06/2015.
  • Syrian Arab Republic-Ministry of Culture, Directorate-general of Antiquities & Museums; Palmyra: Damage to the Museum Building, 29/07/2015.
  • Syrian Arab Republic-Ministry of Culture, Directorate-general of Antiquities & Museums; Palmyra: ISIS Blown up Baal-Shamin Temple, 24/08/2015.
  • Syrian Arab Republic-Ministry of Culture, Directorate-general of Antiquities & Museums; Satellite Image Confirming the Destruction of the Sella of Bel Temple in Palmyra, 01/09/2015.
  • Syrian Arab Republic-Ministry of Culture, Directorate-general of Antiquities & Museums; Satellite Imagery of 6 Tower Tombs in Palmyra Destroyed by ISIS, 04/09/2015.
  • Syrian Arab Republic-Ministry of Culture, Directorate-general of Antiquities & Museums; ISIS Destroys the Arch of Triumph in Palmyra, 05/10/2015.
  • Syrian Arab Republic-Ministry of Culture, Directorate-general of Antiquities & Museums; In photos: Arch of Triumph of Palmyra upon Destruction of ISIS, 09/10/2015.
  • Syrian Arab Republic-Ministry of Culture, Directorate-general of Antiquities & Museums; Latest News About Palmyra, 28/09/2015.
  • Syrian Arab Republic-Ministry of Culture, Directorate-general of Antiquities & Museums; Shell Hits the National Museum of Aleppo, 12/11/2014.
  • Syrian Arab Republic-Ministry of Culture, Directorate-general of Antiquities & Museums; Ancient City of Aleppo: New Photos of Damages for Some Historic Buildings - Second Set, 12/05/2015.
  • Syrian Arab Republic-Ministry of Culture, Directorate-general of Antiquities & Museums; Vandalism Endanger Al Bara Archaeological Site, 16/11/2014.
  • Syrian Arab Republic-Ministry of Culture, Directorate-general of Antiquities & Museums; In Photos: Major Damages at Shinsharah in Djebel El-Zawyé, 07/10/2015.
  • Syrian Arab Republic-Ministry of Culture, Directorate-general of Antiquities & Museums; Homs Countryside: ISIS Destroy 5th Century Mar Ellian Monastery, 21/08/2015.
  • Syrian Arab Republic-Ministry of Culture, Directorate-General of Antiquities & Museums; In Photos: Deliberate Destruction of Heritage in Bara in Jabal Ez-Zawiyeh, 03/11/2015.
  • Syrian Arab Republic-Ministry of Culture, Directorate-General of Antiquities & Museums; Damage at the Roman Theatre in Bosra Ancient city, 23/12/2015.
  • Syrian Arab Republic-Ministry of Culture, Directorate-General of Antiquities & Museums: The Antiquities Directorate of Aleppo Inspected the Damage at Both Beit Ghazaleh & Beit Ashiqbash, 20/08/2016.
  • Syrian Arab Republic, Antiquities Law 1963.
  • U.N. Doc. S/2014/348, The Security Council Draft Resolution, 22 May 2014.
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  • UN Doc. S/RES/814, Adopted by the Security Council at Its 3188th meeting, 26 March 1993 (Somalia).
  • UN News Center; Safeguarding the Cultural Heritage of Syria and Iraq is Essential for Future Peace, Say Senior UN Officials.
  • UNESCO, Director-General Irina Bokova Condemns the Destruction of the Mar Elian Monastery in Syria, 21 August 2015.
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  • UNESCO, World Heritage Centre, World Heritage List, Ancient City of Bosra.
  • UNESCO, World Heritage Centre, World Heritage List, Ancient City of Aleppo.
  • UNESCO, World Heritage Centre, World Heritage List, Ancient Villages of Northern Syria.
  • UNESCO, World Heritage Centre, World Heritage List, Crac des Chevaliers and Qal’at Salah El-Din.
  • UNESCO, World Heritage Centre, World Heritage List, Site of Palmyra.
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