ماهیت اصول کلی حقوقی و کارکردهای آن در حقوق بین‌الملل

نوع مقاله: علمی پژوهشی

نویسنده

استادیار دانشکده حقوق و علوم سیاسی دانشگاه مازندران

10.22066/cilamag.2018.31692

چکیده

حقوق بین‌الملل، نظامی است که وظیفه صیانت از حکومت قانون در عرصه بین‌المللی و نیل به ارزش‌های مشترک همچون بشریت، عدالت و امنیت را بر ‌عهده دارد. این نظام از ارزش‌ها و هنجارهایی به­هم­پیوسته تشکیل شده که مبین اهداف و اغراض اجتماعی، سیاسی و اخلاقی حقوق هستند. به همین دلیل، غالباً حقوق بین‌الملل به‌عنوان نظام مبتنی بر مبانی ارزشی شناخته می‌شود تا مبتنی بر قواعد موضوعه.
شیوه‌های مختلفی برای بیان این مبانی وجود دارد که مهم‌ترین آن‌ها، استفاده از ابزاری به نام «منابع اصلی حقوق بین‌الملل» است. در میان منابع اصلی حقوق بین‌الملل، اصول کلی علی‌رغم آنکه نقش بسیار مهمی به‌عنوان پایه‌های ساختار حقوقی ایفا می‌کنند کماکان مهجور و ناشناخته مانده‌اند. در این مقاله هدف این است که ماهیت اصول کلی و کارکردهای مختلف آن ارزیابی شود. با توجه به اینکه حقوق بین‌الملل، نظام تجدید، پویایی و توسعه دائمی است، این کارکردها نقش بسیار مهمی در جلوگیری از رکود حقوق بین‌الملل ایفا کرده و به این نظام نوپا اجازه رشد بیشتر و همچنین پاسخگویی به چالش‌های جدید را می‌دهد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The Nature of the General Principles of Law and Their Functions in International Law

نویسنده [English]

  • Zahra Mahmoudi
Assistant Professor in International Law, Faculty of Law and Political Science; University of Mazandaran
چکیده [English]

Abstract: The international law is a legal system tasked with securing the rule of law on the international scene and attainment of common values such as humanity, justice, and security. This system consists of interlinked values and norms which represent social, political and moral purposes of law, therefore the international law is more based on normative foundations than rules. There are different ways to display the norms, the most important one is the main sources of international law. Despite the significance of the general principles as foundations of legal structure, they remain unknown. The purpose of this paper is to examine the nature of general principles and to evaluate their different functions. Given that, international law is a system with constant renewal and dynamism, the functions of general principles play an important role in preventing the stagnation of international law. They help for growth and responding to new challenges of international law.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Keywords: Nature of General Principles of Law
  • value
  • Functions of General Principles
  • Procedural Principles
  • Substantive Principles
  • Development of International Law
  • Jurisprudence

الف. فارسی

ـ کتاب

  • خوانساری، محمد؛ دوره مختصر منطق صوری، چاپ پانزدهم، دانشگاه تهران، 1380.
  • صادقی، محسن؛ اصول حقوقی و جایگاه آن در حقوق موضوعه، میزان، 1384.
  • فلسفی، هدایت‌الله؛ حقوق بین‌الملل معاهدات، فرهنگ نشر نو، 1382.
  • _____________؛ صلح جاویدان و حکومت قانون، فرهنگ نشر نو،1390.
  • کاتوزیان، ناصر؛ فلسفه حقوق، شرکت سهامی انتشار، 1377.
  • کک­دین، نگوین، پاتریک دینه و آلن پله؛ حقوق بین‌الملل عمومی، ترجمه: حسن حبیبی، انتشارات اطلاعات، 1382.

ـ مقاله

  • بولانژه، ژان؛ «اصول کلی حقوق و حقوق موضوعه»، ترجمه: علیرضا محمدزاده وادقانی، مجله دانشکده حقوق و علوم سیاسی دانشگاه تهران، شماره 36، 1376.
  • فردروس، آلفرد؛ «صول کلی حقوق بین‌الملل در نظام منابع حقوق بین‌الملل»، ترجمه: اردشیر امیرارجمند، مجله تحقیقات حقوقی، شمارگان 16ـ17، پاییز 1374 تا بهار 1375.
  • فلسفی، هدایت‌الله؛ ماجرای تفسیر در دیوان بین‌المللی دادگستری، سالنامه حقوق بین‌الملل و تطبیقی، شماره پنجم، 1388.

ب. انگلیسی

- Books

  • Brownlie, Ian, Principles of Public International Law, 7th ed., Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2008.
  • Cassese, A., International Law, 2nd ed., Oxford: Oxford University Press. 2005.
  • Cheng, B., General Principles of Law as Applied by International Courts and Tribunals, London: Cambridge University Press, 2006.
  • Degan, V.D., Sources of International Law, Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, the Netherland, 1997.
  • Dworkin, Ronald, Taking Rights Seriously, Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 1977.
  • Fabian O., Raimondo, General Principles of Law in the Decisions of International Criminal Courts and Tribunals, Leiden, Martinus Nijhoff, 2008.
  • Herczegh, G., General Principles of International Law and the International Legal Order, Budapest: Akademiai Kiado, 1969.
  • Higgins, R., Problems and Process: International Law and How We Use It, Oxford: Clarendon Press, 2003.
  • Jenks, C. W., The Proper Law of International Organizations, London: Stevens. 1962.
  • Lauterpacht, H., The Development of International Law by the International Court, Cambridge University Press, 1982 (rev. ed. 2010).
  • Lukashuk, lv, International Law in International Legal System, 1993.
  • Marchettoni L., “Recognition of International Law: From Formal Criteria to Substantive Principles”. In: Pineschi L. (eds.) General Principles of Law - The Role of the Judiciary. Ius Gentium: Comparative Perspectives on Law and Justice, vol 46. Springer, Cham, 2015.
  • Pauwelyn, J., Conflict of Norms in Public International Law, Cambridge University Press, 2003.
  • Schill, Stephan, “General Principles of Law and International Investment Law”, in International Investment Law, Leiden, Martinus Nijhoff, 2012.
  • Thirlway, H., The Sources of International Law, Oxford University Press. 2014.
  • Wright, Q., “United Nation War Crimes Commission”, in Law Report of War Criminals, vol. XV, Oxford, 1949.

- Articles

  • Bleicher, “The Legal Significance of Re-citation of General Assembly Resolutions”, AM. J. INT'L L., vol. 63, 1969.
  • Bos, Maarten, “The Recognized Manifestations of International Law”, German Yearbook of International Law, vol. 20, 1977.
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  • D'Amato, Anthony, “A Methodology of International Law, by Maarten Bos”, 9 Md. J. Int'l L. 207 (1985). Available at:

http://digitalcommons.law.umaryland.edu/mjil/vol9/iss2/3.

  • Dawidowicz, Martin, “The Effect of the Passage of Time on the Interpretation of Treaties”, Leiden Journal of International Law, vol. 24, 2011.
  • Degan, Vladimir, “General Principles of Law”, Finish Yearbook of International Law, vol. 3, 1992.
  • Hilf, M., “Power, Rules and Principles- Which Orientation for WTO/GATT Law?”, J. INT’L Economy, vol. 4, 2001.
  • Jalet, F., “The Quest for the General Principles of Law Recognized by Civilized Nations”, U.C.L.A. Law Review, vol. 10, 1963.
  • Lammers, “General Principles of Law Recognized by Civilized Nations”, in Essays in the Development of the International Legal Order, (F. Kalshoven, P.J. Kuyper & J.G. Lammers eds. 1980)
  • Simma, B. and Alston, P., “The Sources of Human Rights Law: Custom, Jus Cogens and General Principles”, Australian Yearbook of International Law, vol. 12, 1991.

Jurisprudence & Documents

- Jurisprudence:

  • Application for Review of Judgment No. 158 of the United Nations Administrative Tribunal, (Advisory Opinion), I.C.J. Reports,1973.
  • Blaskic Case, the decision of the president, I.C.T.Y. Judicial Reports 1996, para. 796.
  • Chorzow Factory (Claim for Indemnity), P.C.I.J. Series A, No. 17.
  • Chorzow Factory (Merits), P.C.I.J. Series A, No. 1, 1928.
  • Corfu Channel (United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland v. Albania), Merit, Judgment of 9 April 1949.
  • EC-Biotech (European Communities — Measures Affecting the Approval and Marketing of Biotech Products), WT/DS291, WT/DS292, WT/DS293, Panel Report, 2006.
  • Erdmovic Case, (Prosecutor v. Drazen Erdmovic), Case No. IT-96-22-A, 7 October 1997.
  • Furundzija Case, Case No. IT-95-17/1-T, ICTY Trial Chamber II, Judgment of 10 December 1998.
  • Gabćikovo Nagymaros Project (Hungary v. Slovakia) I.C.J. Reports, 1997.
  • South West African Case (Second Phase), Ethiopia v. South Africa; Liberia v. South Africa, I.C.J. Reports, 1966.
  • Legal Status of Eastern Greenland, P.C.I.J. Series A/B, No. 53, 5 April 1933.
  • Legality of the Threat or Use of Nuclear Weapons, (Advisory Opinion), I.C.J. Reports, 8 July 1996.
  • Martic Case, (Prosecutor v. Milan Martic), Case No. IT-95-11-R61, 8 March 1996.
  • Nuclear Tests Case (Australia v. France), Judgment of 20 December 1974.
  • Right of Passage (Portugal v. India), (Preliminary Objection) I.C.J. Reports 1957 & (Merits) I.C.J. Reports 1960.
  • Saiga Case, (Saint Vincent and Grenadines v. Guinea), I.T.L.S. 1999.
  • Southern Bluefin Tuna (New Zealand v. Japan, Australia v. Japan), (Provisional Measures) I.T.L.O.S., 1999.
  • Tadic Case, (Prosecutor v. Dusko Tadic), Case No. IT-94-A, Appeal Chamber, 15 July 1999.
  • Temple of Preah Vihear Case, (Cambodia v. Thailand), I.C.J Reports, 15 June 1962.
  • U.N. Administrative Tribunal,(Advisory Opinion), I..C.J Reports, 1954.
  • US–Shrimp Case, (United States – Import Prohibition of Certain Shrimp and Shrimp Products).WT/DS58/R, 1998.
  • US–Hot-Rolled Steel (United States-Anti-Dumping Measures on Certain Hot-Rolled Steel Products from Japan) WT/DS184/AB/R. 2001.

 

- Documents:       

  • Charter of the United Nations, 1945.
  • Declaration on Principles of International Law Concerning Friendly Relations and Co-operation among States in Accordance with the Charter of the UN General Assembly Res. 2625 (XXV), 1970.
  • United Nations Convention on the International Sale of Goods (CISG), 1980.
  • Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties, 1969.