رابطۀ میان حقوق سرمایه‌گذار خارجی و تعهدات بین‌المللی حقوق بشر و محیط زیست

نوع مقاله: علمی پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری حقوق بین‌الملل دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، واحد علوم‌‌وتحقیقات تهران

2 دانشیار دانشکده حقوق دانشگاه شهید بهشتی، قاضی دیوان داوری دعاوی ایران ـ ایالات متحده، استاد ممتاز مهمان دانشگاه تیلبورخ هلند

10.22066/cilamag.2019.65030.1286

چکیده

امروزه حمایت از سرمایه‌گذار خارجی، ابزاری برای رسیدن به رشد و توسعه اقتصادی در برنامه توسعه کشورها، به‌ویژه کشورهای درحال­توسعه است. توجه به انتظارات معقول سرمایه‌گذار، میل به سرمایه‌گذاری در کشورهای دیگر را افزایش داده است. از طرف دیگر و به‌طور هم‌زمان، حمایت از حقوق بشر یکی از تعهدات اصلی دولت‌ها شناخته می‌شود. در پاره‌ای از موارد، ملاحظات حقوق‌بشری و زیست‌محیطی، به‌ویژه حقوق اقتصادی، اجتماعی و فرهنگی با تعهد دولت میزبان به حمایت از سرمایه‌گذار خارجی برخورد پیدا می‌کند. سؤال این است که چه سازوکار حقوقی‌ای می‌تواند از به‌وجودآمدن این تنش جلوگیری کند؟ رویه داوری سرمایه‌گذاری نشان می‌دهد که داوران از پرداختن به این تعارض امتناع کرده و آن را خارج از حیطه صلاحیتی داوری سرمایه‌گذاری می‌دانند. این در حالی است که در عصر حاضر، نیاز به تلاش متعارف برای درج تعهدات حقوق‌بشری در معاهدات سرمایه‌گذاری از طریق بازنگری در آن‌ها بیش از پیش احساس می‌شود.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The Relationship between Foreign Investors’ Rights and International Human Rights and Environmental Obligations

نویسندگان [English]

  • Arash Behzadi parsi 1
  • Seyyed Jamal Seifi 2
1 PhD of International Law, Islamic Azad University, Science and Research Branch
2 Judge at Iran-US Claims Tribunal; Tilburg University Guest Professor, The Hague; Associate Professor of Law, Shahid Beheshti University
چکیده [English]

Today, supporting foreign investors is considered as an instrument to achieve economic growth and development within national development plans, particularly in the developing states. Rising concerns for reasonable expectations of investors, have led to the increase of interests in investment in other countries. On the other hand and simultaneously, protecting human rights is recognized as one of the obligations of states. In some instances, human rights and environmental considerations, particularly economic, social and cultural ones clash with the obligations of host states to protect foreign investors. The question arising here is what legal mechanism may prevent such a clash? Investment-related arbitral jurisprudence demonstrates that arbitrators have avoided dealing with this conflict, recognizing it beyond the competence of investment arbitration, while the need for a reasonable effort to incorporate human rights obligations in investment treaties by way of revising them is felt more than before.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • International Investment Law
  • human rights
  • Environmental Law
  • Investors Legitimate Expectations
  • Economic
  • Social and Cultural Rights
  • Investment Arbitration

الف. فارسی

ـ کتاب

  • پیران، حسین؛ مسائل حقوقی سرمایه‌گذاری بین‌المللی، گنج دانش، 1389.
  • دالزر، رودلف؛ اصول حقوق بین‌الملل سرمایه‌گذاری، ترجمه: سیدقاسم زمانی، شهر دانش، 1393.
  • لوونفلد، آندریاس؛ حقوق بین‌الملل سرمایه‌گذاری، ترجمه: محمدجعفر قنبری جهرمی؛ جنگل، جاودانه، 1390.
  • میرعباسی، سیدباقر و رزی میرعباسی؛ جایگاه اصل توسعه پایدار در تحقق حق‌های بشری از منظر حقوق بین‌الملل، 1395.
  • ابراهیم­گل، علیرضا؛ نیم‌نگاهی به روش‌شناسی حقوق بین‌الملل، خرسندی، 1393.

 

ـ مقاله

  • قاری سیدفاطمی، سیدمحمد؛ «قلمرو حق‌ها در حقوق بشر معاصر: جهان‌شمولی در قبال مطلق‌گرایی»، نامه مفید، بهمن 1381، شماره 33.
  • قنبری جهرمی، محمدجعفر و منصور وصالی محمود؛ «تحول نظام مسئولیت بین‌المللی دولت در حقوق بین‌الملل سرمایه‌گذاری»، مجله تحقیقات حقوقی، شماره 71، پاییز 1394.
  • بهمئی، محمد‌علی و نجمه تقوی؛ «حمایت از انتظارات مشروع سرمایه‌گذار و چالش‌های فراروی آن در حقوق بین الملل سرمایه‌گذاری»، مجله تحقیقات حقوقی، شماره 74، 1395.

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