چالش ارزهای مجازی در مبارزه با پولشویی و تأمین مالی تروریسم با تأکید بر اقدامات و توصیه‌های کارگروه ویژه اقدام مالی(FATF)

نوع مقاله: علمی پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استاد حقوق در دانشکده حقوق و علوم سیاسی دانشگاه تهران

2 دانشجوی دکتری حقوق فناوری دانشگاه هنگ کنگ

10.22066/cilamag.2019.101998.1647

چکیده

ابزارها و شیوه‌های پولشویی به‌عنوان اصلی‌ترین روش تسهیل‌کننده تأمین مالی تروریسم، با ظهور فناوری‌های نوین، چنان تنوع یافته است که دیگر نمی‌توان مبارزه با آن را به قالب‌های سنتی گذشته منوط کرد. تروریست‌ها و تبهکاران از فناوری‌های نوین چون اینترنت و ارزهای مجازی برای توسعه روش‌های مجرمانه خویش بسیار سود می‌جویند. ارزهای مجازی بر بستری غیرمتمرکز و در پوشش ناشناختگی عمل می‌کنند. این ارزها در اغلب موارد فاقد پشتوانه دولتی بوده و هیچ ضمانت یا نظارتی را بر خویش نمی‌بینند. هرچند ویژگی‌های خاص ارزهای مجازی، کار را برای مجرمین و تروریست‌ها تسهیل کرده، نباید در این امر مبالغه کرد. مطالعات نهادهای بین‌المللی چون کارگروه ویژه اقدام مالی در سال‌های اخیر، تا حدودی نقاط قوت مبارزه با اعمال مجرمانة ارتکابی با توسل به این ابزارهای مجازی را آشکار کرده است.
این پژوهش بر آن است با تحلیل جنبه‌های مختلف ارزهای مجازی، تأثیر آن‌ها را بر اجرای قواعد ضدپولشویی (AML) و تأمین مالی تروریسم (CFT) بررسی کند. این موضوع، به­ویژه در سال‌های اخیر علاوه بر کشورهای مختلف، توجه نهادهایی چون کارگروه ویژه اقدام مالی را نیز به خود جلب کرده است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The Challenge of Virtual Currencies in Combating Money Laundering and Financing of Terrorism with Emphasis on the Actions and Recommendations of the Financial Action Task Force (FATF)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Abbasali Kadkhodaei 1
  • Hessam Norouzpour 2
1 Professor of Law at University of Tehran, Faculty of Law;
2 PhD Student of Technology law, Hong Kong University
چکیده [English]

Money laundering instruments and techniques, as the main tool for facilitating the financing of terrorism, have become so diversified with the emergence of new technologies that the fight against it can no longer be confined to traditional forms. Terrorists and criminals make great use of new technologies such as the internet and virtual currencies to develop their criminal methods. Virtual currencies operate on a decentralized basis and under anonymity. These currencies often lack government support and do not bear any warranties or oversight. Although the special features of virtual currencies facilitate work for perpetrators and terrorists, this should not be the way to go exaggerated. The study of international institutions such as the Financial Action Task Force in recent years has partially revealed the strengths of the fight against criminal acts committed by these virtual instruments. This study seeks to analyze the impact of anti-money laundering (AML) and combating financing of terrorism (CFT) methods by analyzing different aspects of virtual currencies, In particular, in recent years, in addition to various countries, it has attracted the attention of institutions such as the Financial Action Task Force.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Anonymity
  • FATF
  • Money Laundering
  • Financing of Terrorism
  • Virtual Currencies
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