چالش‌های حقوقی قابلیت‌های فضای سایبری در پرتو ماده 36 پروتکل یکم الحاقی 1977

نوع مقاله: علمی پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشیار دانشکده حقوق‌وعلوم‌سیاسی دانشگاه‌ آزاد اسلامی، واحد علوم‌وتحقیقات تهران

2 نویسنده مسئول، دانشجوی دکتری حقوق بین الملل، گروه حقوق، دانشگاه پیام نور، ص.پ 4697- 19395، تهران، ایران.

چکیده

بیش از چهار دهه از تصویب ماده 36 پروتکل اول الحاقی به کنوانسیون‌های چهارگانه ژنو به‌عنوان هنجار ارزیابی حقوقی سلاح‌ها، ابزار و روش‌های جدید جنگی می‌گذرد. معیارهای مندرج در این ماده بر اساس سلاح‌هایی تدوین شده که در زمان تصویب آن وجود داشت. توسعه فناوری‌های جدید، سلاح‌هایی را پدید‌ آورده که برای هنجارهای نظارتی احراز قانونی­بودن آن‌ها دشواری‌هایی ایجاد کرده است. فضای سایبری به‌عنوان یکی از این فناوری‌ها، قابلیت‌هایی دارد که ممکن است به‌عنوان سلاح برای ورود خسارت و جراحت در مخاصمات مسلحانه به کار گرفته شود. آیا ماده 36 پروتکل یکم الحاقی می‌تواند چنین قابلیت‌هایی را بر اساس حقوق بین‌الملل بشردوستانه قانونمند کند؟ به‌دلیل جدیدبودن این قابلیت‌ها و دشواری در اطلاق آن‌ها به‌عنوان سلاح، بررسی حقوقی آن‌ها در پرتو ماده 36 پروتکل یکم الحاقی  چالش‌هایی دارد. بررسی ارکان ماده 36 به‌ همراه ماهیت قابلیت‌های فضای سایبری نشان داد که ارزیابی حقوقی آن‌ها با دشواری‌هایی روبه‌روست، مانند فقدان قواعد و مقرراتی که صریحاً استفاده از فضای سایبری را منع یا مجاز کرده باشد، سپردن تعریف سلاح به دول عضو پروتکل، تعریف سلاح جدید، عدم اطلاق شئ به داده‌های رایانه‌ای برای تلقی قابلیت سایبری به‌عنوان سلاح، فقدان اجماع بین‌المللی در خصوص آثار به­کارگیری قابلیت‌های سایبری، فقدان مقرره­ای در خصوص الزام افراد و گروه‌های تولیدکننده سلاح‌های سایبری برای ارزیابی حقوقی و مهم‌تر از همه، درهم­تنیدگی شبکه‌های نظامی و غیرنظامی که احتمال دارد با کاربرد قابلیت‌های سایبری، شبکه‌های غیرنظامی حیاتی آلوده شده و رعایت اصول بنیادین حقوق بین‌الملل بشردوستانه اعم از تفکیک، تناسب، ضرورت نظامی و اتخاذ اقدامات احتیاطی را با فناوری امروز غیرممکن کند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Legal Challenges of Cyber Space Capabilities in Light of Article 36 of 1977 Additional Protocol I

نویسندگان [English]

  • Hossein Sharifi Tarazkouhi 1
  • Jafar Barmaki 2
1 Associate Professor, Islamic Azad University of Tehran Research Branch, Faculty of Law
2 Corresponding author, PhD student in International Law, Department of Law, Payame Noor University, post box. 4697-19395, Tehran, Iran.
چکیده [English]

For more than four decades, Article 36 of the Additional Protocol to the Geneva Conventions has been considered as a norm for assessing the legality of new weapons. The criteria included in this article are based on weapons that were in existence at the time of its adoption. New technologies have brought new weapons which challenged the existing norms. Cyberspace as one of these technologies has capabilities that are used in software or malware forms for causing damages or injuries in the armed conflicts. The question posed here is whether Article 36 of the Additional Protocol I can regulate such capabilities under international humanitarian law? Due to the novelty of these capabilities and the difficulty of naming them as weapons, their legal review is faced with challenges in the light of Article 36 of the Additional Protocol. The review of Article 36, along with the nature of cyberspace capabilities shows that their legal assessment faces challenges such as the lack of rules and regulations that explicitly prohibits or allows explicitly the use of cyberspace, entrusting the definition of weapons to the member States of the Protocol, the definition of new weapons, the non-application of the object to computer data for the perceived cyber-weapons as a weapon, the lack of an international consensus on the virtual effects of the use of cybercriminals, the lack of regulation on the requirement for individuals and groups to produce cyber weapons for legal assessment, and most importantly, the interconnection of military and civilian networks and the possible use of cyber-weapons likely to infect critical civilian networks. Therefore, respecting the fundamental principles of International Humanitarian Law including distinction, proportionality, military necessity, and precautionary measures will be difficult.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • International humanitarian law
  • Law of Armed Conflict
  • Additional Protocol I
  • Cyber Space
  • Legal Review
  • New Weapons
  • new technologies
  • Tallinn Manual
الف. فارسی
  • شریفی طرازکوهی، حسین؛ حقوق بشردوستانه بین‌المللی، چاپ دوم، میزان، 1395.
  • ضیایی بیگدلی، محمدرضا؛ حقوق بین‌الملل بشردوستانه، چاپ سوم، گنج دانش، 1392.
  • قربان‌نیا، ناصر؛ حقوق بشر و حقوق بشردوستانه، پژوهشگاه فرهنگ و اندیشه اسلامی، 1387.
 ب. انگلیسی
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- Documents
  • Biontino, Michael, “Lethal Autonomous Weapon Systems Expert Meeting”, Geneva, 13-16 May 2014.
  • Brose, Robert, “Cyber War, Net War and the Future of Cyber Defence”, Office of the Director of National Intelligence, United States. 2015.
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- Websites