رویکرد کلی به آیین عدم‌ پایبندی در موافقت‌نامه‌های زیست‌محیطی چندجانبه (با اشاره به پروتکل مونترال راجع به مواد کاهنده لایه اوزن)

نوع مقاله: علمی پژوهشی

نویسنده

استادیار حقوق بین الملل دانشکده حقوق و علوم سیاسی دانشگاه شیراز

چکیده

به تناسب تغییر در رویکرد جامعه بین‌المللی به مسائل و موضوعات ‌زیست‌محیطی، حقوق بین‌الملل محیط‌زیست به‌عنوان نظام حقوقی نسبتاً سازمند، تحولات بی‌شماری به خود دیده است. پیش‌بینی سازکاری به نام «آیین عدم ‌پایبندی»[1] در موافقت‌نامه‌های زیست‌محیطی چندجانبه از اوایل دهه نود میلادی، ازجمله مهم‌ترین این تحولات محسوب می‌شود. این آیین که متفاوت از سازکارهای سنتی حل‌و‌فصل اختلافات است، دربرگیرنده ترتیباتی است که از طریق آن‌ها تلاش می‌شود با اتخاذ طیف گسترده‌ای از تدابیر، از اقدامات نرم (مانند مساعدت مالی و فنی) گرفته تا اقدامات سخت (مانند تحریم)، پایبندی بیشتر به تعهدات تضمین شود. این مقاله ضمن بررسی جایگاه آیین عدم‌ پایبندی در موافقت‌نامه‌های زیست‌محیطی چندجانبه، به‌طور موردی به تبیین جوانب ساختاری و نهادی و برخی از مهم‌ترین نتایج عملی آیین عدم‌ پایبندی «پروتکل مونترال راجع به مواد کاهنده لایه اوزن» می‌پردازد. در پایان استدلال می‌شود که این آیین دارای مبنا، پشتوانه و جایگاه حقوقی باثباتی در موافقت‌نامه‌های مذکور به‌ویژه پروتکل مونترال است و بررسی روند اجرای این پروتکل، حکایت از افزایش پایبندی اعضا در نتیجة به‌کارگیری این آیین دارد.


[1]. Non-Compliance procedure

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

An Overall Approach to Non-Compliance Procedure in Multilateral Environmental Agreements (Referring to the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer)

نویسنده [English]

  • Aghil Mohammadi
Assistant Professor of International Law, Faculty of Law and Political Sciences, Shiraz University
چکیده [English]

The international environmental law as a relatively systematic legal system consistent with changing the international community's approach to environmental issues has embraced major developments. The establishment of a mechanism called the non-compliance procedure in multilateral environmental agreements since the early 1990s is one of the most important developments. This procedure, which is different from the traditional methods of international dispute settlement, consists of the arrangements which as a result of their application, are attempted by adopting a wide range of measures including soft measures (such as financial and technical assistance) and hard measures (such as sanctions) to ensure more complete compliance with the obligations. This paper, based on a descriptive-analytical method, while outlining the status of the non-compliance procedures in the multilateral environmental agreements in general, in a case study, analyzes the structural and institutional aspects and some of the most important practical results of the Montreal Protocol on substances that deplete the ozone layer. In the end, this article argues that this procedure has a stable legal status in these agreements, and the examination of the implementation of the Montreal Protocol implies an increase in the membership of the members as a result of the application of this procedure.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Multilateral Environmental Agreements
  • enforcement
  • Non-Compliance Procedure
  • Montreal Protocol
  • Compliance Body
الف. فارسی

ـ کتاب

  • راعی‌دهقی، مسعود و حسین عبدوس؛ سازکارهای نظارت بر اجرای تعهدات زیست‌محیطی دولت‌ها در اسناد بین‌المللی، مجد، 1394.
  • لیری، دیوید و بالاکریشتا پیسوپاتی؛ آینده حقوق بین‌الملل محیط‌زیست، ترجمه و تحقیق: مهرداد محمدی، شهر دانش، 1394.
  • میرعباسی، باقر و فرناز میرعباسی؛ نظام جهانی ارزیابی و حمایت از حقوق بشر، جلد دوم، جنگل، 1390.
 

ـ مقاله

  • پورهاشمی، عباس و همکاران؛ «دادخواهی و مسئولیت بین‌المللی؛ ابزار مقابله با عدم ایفای تعهدات در خصوص تغییرات آب­وهوایی»، فصلنامه انسان و محیط­زیست، شماره 31، زمستان 1393.
  • علوی، زهره‌السادات؛ «آیین‌های عدم اجرا در حقوق بین‌الملل محیط‌زیست»، در: رهیافت‌های نوین در پرتو حقوق بین‌الملل محیط‌زیست، به اهتمام سبحان طیبی، خرسندی، 1395.
 

ب. انگلیسی

- Books

  • Bodansky, Daniel et al, International Climate Change Law, Oxford University Press, 2017.
  • Bodansky, Daniel, The Art and Craft of International Environmental Law, United States: Harvard University Press, 2010.
  • Birnie, Patricia et al, International Law and the Environment, Oxford University Press, 2009.
  • Chayes, Abram and Antonia Handler Chayes, The New Sovereignty: Compliance with International Regulatory Agreements, Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1995.
  • Gillespie, Alexander, Climate Change, Ozone Depletion and Air Pollution: Legal Commentaries with Policy and Science Considerations, Netherlands: Brill, 2006.
  • Garner, Bryan A. and Henry Campbell Black, Black’s Law Dictionary, 8th ed., United States: St. Paul, MN: Thomson/West, 2004.
  • Ozone Secretariat, United Nations Environment Programme, Handbook for the International Treaties for the Protection of the Ozone Layer, Eleventh edition, The Secretariat for the Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer & the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer, 2017.
 

- Articles

  • Bafundo, Nina E., “Compliance with the Ozone Treaty: Weak States and the Principle of Common but Differentiated Responsibility”, American University International Law Review. vol. 21, iss. 3, 2006.
  • Bigi, Giulia, “Draft Non-Compliance Procedure under the 2001 Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants”, in: Non- Compliance Procedures and Mechanisms and the Effectiveness of International Environmental Agreements, Tullio Treves et al (eds.), The Hague, The Netherlands: T.M.C. Asser Press, 2009.
  • Beth A. Simmons, “Compliance with International Agreements”, The Annual Review of Political Science, vol. 1, 1998.
  • Downs, George W., “Enforcement and the Evolution of Cooperation”, Michigan Journal of International Law, vol. 19, no. 2, 1998.
  • Ehrmann, Markus, “Procedures of Compliance Control in International Environmental Treaties”, Colorado Journal of International Environmental Law and Policy, vol. 13(2), 2002.
  • Fitzmaurice, Malgosia, “The Kyoto Protocol Compliance Regime and Treaty Law”, Singapore Year Book of International Law and Contributors, vol. 8, 2004.
  • Fitzmaurice, Malgosia and Catherine Redgwell, “Environmental Non-compliance Procedures and International Law”, Netherlands Yearbook of International Law, vol. 31, 2000.
  • Fodella, Alessandro. “Structural and Institutional Aspects of Non-Compliance Mechanisms”, in: Non-Compliance Procedures and Mechanisms and the Effectiveness.
  • Romanin Jacur, Francesca, “Triggering Non-Compliance Procedures 2009, in Non-Compliance Procedures and Mechanisms and the Effectiveness of International Environmental Agreements, Tullio Treves, Attila Tanzi, Cesare Pitea and Chiara Ragni, (eds.), Asser Press, April 2009. Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=1953505.
  • Jacobson, Harold K. and Edith Brown Weiss, “A Framework for Analysis”, 1988. http://faculty.fgcu.edu/twimberley/EnviroPol/Framework.pdf.
    • Kingsbury, Benedict, “The Concept of Compliance as a Function of Competing Conceptions of International Law”, Michigan Journal of International Law, vol. 19, 1998.
    • Koskenniemi, Martti, “Breach of Treaty or Non-Compliance? Reflections on the Enforcement of the Montreal Protocol”, Yearbook of International Environmental Law, vol. 3, iss. 1, 1992.
    • Montini, Massimiliano “Procedural Guarantees in Non-Compliance Mechanisms”, in: Non-Compliance Procedures and Mechanisms and the Effectiveness of International Environmental Agreements, Tullio Treves et al (eds.), The Hague, The Netherlands: T.M.C. Asser Press, 2009.
    • Raustiala, Kal, “Compliance & Effectiveness in International Regulatory Cooperation”, Case Western Reserve Journal of International Law, vol. 32, iss. 3, 2000.
    • Sarma, K. Madhava, “Compliance with the Multilateral Environmental Agreements to Protect the Ozone Layer”, in: Ensuring Compliance with Multilateral Environmental Agreements: A Dialogue between Practitioners and Academia, Ulrich Beyerlin et al. (eds.), Netherlands: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, 2006.
    • Treves, Tullio, “Introduction”, in: Non- Compliance Procedures and Mechanisms and the Effectiveness of International Environmental Agreements, Tullio Treves et al (eds.), The Hague, The Netherlands: T.M.C. Asser Press, 2009.
    • ----. “The Settlement of Disputes and Non-Compliance Procedures”, in: Non-Compliance Procedures and Mechanisms and the Effectiveness of International Environmental Agreements, Tullio Treves et al (eds.), The Hague, The Netherlands: T.M.C. Asser Press, 2009.
    • Victor, David G., “The Operation and Effectiveness of the Montreal Protocol’s Non-Compliance Procedure”, in: The Implementation and Effectiveness of International Environmental Commitments, David G. Victor, Eugene B. Skolnikoff, Kal Raustiala (eds.), Cambridge: The MIT Press, 1998.
    • Weiss, Edith Brown, “Understanding Compliance with International Environmental Agreements: The Baker’s Dozen Myths”, University of Richmond Law Review, vol. 32, iss. 5, 1998.
    • ----, “Strengthening National Compliance with International Environmental Agreements”, Environmental Policy and Law. vol. 27, No. 4, 1997.
 

- Documents

  • Convention on Access to Information, Public Participation in Decision-making and Access to Justice in Environmental Matters (Aarhus Convention), 25 June, 1998.
  • The Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer, 1987.
  • Report of the Third Meeting of the Parties to the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer, Decision III/2: Non-compliance procedure, June 21, 1991.
  • Report of the Tenth Meeting of the Parties to the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer, Annex V: Indicative List of Measures that Might be Taken by a Meeting of the Parties in Respect of Non-Compliance with the Protocol, Doc. UNEP/Ozl. Pro.4/15, 25 November, 1992.
  • Report of the Seventh Meeting of the Parties to the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer, Decision VII/18. Compliance with the Montreal Protocol by the Russian Federation, UNEP/OzL.Pro.7/12, 27 December, 1995.
  • Report of the Tenth Meeting of the Parties to the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer, Decision X/10: Review of the Non-Compliance Procedure, 24 November, 1998.
  • Report of the Tenth Meeting of the Parties to the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer, Annex II: Non-Compliance Procedure, UNEP/OzL.Pro.10/9, 3 December, 1998.
  • Report of the Conference of the Parties on its Seventh Session, Procedures and mechanisms relating to compliance under the Kyoto Protocol, Annex: Procedures and mechanisms relating to compliance under the Kyoto Protocol, Decision 24/CP.7, UN Doc. FCCC/CP/2001/13/Add.3, 21 January, 2002.
  • Report of the Conference of the Parties to the Basel Convention of the Control of Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Wastes and their Disposal, Annex: Establishment of a Mechanism for Promoting Implementation and Compliance, Decision VI/12, Doc. UNEP/CHW.6/40, 10 February, 2003.
  • Report of the Implementation Committee under the Non-Compliance Procedure for the Montreal Protocol on the work of its thirty-second meeting, UNEP/OzL.Pro/ImpCom/32/6, 11 August, 2004.