مفهوم مانع برای اعطای معافیت به متعهد در دعاوی مرتبط با تحریم‌ها

نوع مقاله: علمی پژوهشی

نویسندگان

دکترای حقوق خصوصی دانشگاه شهید بهشتی

چکیده

«مانع» واقعه‌ای است که یا موجب غیرممکن­شدن اجرای قرارداد می‌شود یا اگر هم هنوز اجرا به لحاظ منطقی ممکن باشد، اجرای قرارداد را آن‌قدر دشوار می‌کند که دیگر نمی‌توان منطقاً آن را از متعهد انتظار داشت. متعهد در صورتی از پرداخت خسارات برای عدم انجام تعهداتش معاف می‌شود که بتوان واقعه رخ­داده را در اصطلاح فنی و حقوقی، «مانع» تلقی کرد. پرسش اصلی مقاله این است که آیا «خودِ تحریم» و نیز «اقدامات اجراکننده تحریم» یا «تهدیدات به اِعمال ضمانت اجرا در صورت نقض تحریم» می‌توانند مانع اجرای تعهدات تلقی و موجب معافیت متعهد شوند؟ خود تحریم تحت شرایطی می‌تواند مانعی بر سر راه اجرای تعهدات قراردادی تلقی و موجب معافیت متعهد شود. لیکن اقدامات اجراکننده تحریم یا تهدیدات به اِعمال ضمانت اجرا در صورت نقض تحریم، چه به­عنوان «مانع قانونی» و چه به‌عنوان مانع عملی نمی‌توانند موجب معافیت متعهد شوند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The Concept of Impediment in Granting an Exemption to the Obligor in Disputes Related to the Sanctions

نویسندگان [English]

  • Esmat Golshani
  • Seyed Mahdi Hosseini Modarres
PhD of Private Law, Shahid Beheshti University
چکیده [English]

The impediment is an “event” which makes the performance of a contract impossible or, in cases where the performance of the contract is still physically possible, makes it so difficult that it can no longer reasonably be expected from the obligor to perform the contract. In legal and technical terms, if the event is perceived as an ‘impediment’, the obligor will be exempted from paying damages for the non-performance of his obligations. The main question of this paper is whether “the sanction itself”, “the enforcement measures of a sanction”, and, “the threat of penalty for breach of a sanction” can be perceived as an impediment to the performance of the obligations and provide an exemption for the obligor? Circumstances may occur where the sanction itself can be perceived as an impediment to the performance of contractual obligations and provides an exemption for the obligor. But “the enforcement measures of a sanction” and “the threat of penalty for breach of a sanction” cannot provide an exemption for the obligor neither as a “legal impediment” nor as a “factual impediment”.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Commercial Sanctions
  • Exemption
  • Factual Impediment
  • Legal Impediment
  • Enforcement Measures of a Sanction
  • Threat of Penalty
الف. فارسی
ـ کتاب
  • حقوق بیع بینالمللی ـ کنوانسیون 1980 وین، جمعی از نویسندگان، ترجمه: مهراب داراب‌پور، گنج دانش، جلد 3، 1374.
 
ـ رساله
  • گلشنی، عصمت؛ تأثیر تحریم‌ها بر قراردادهای بازرگانی بین‌المللی، رساله دکتری حقوق خصوصی، دانشکده حقوق دانشگاه شهید بهشتی، 1396.
 
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