موانع بنیادین فراروی تدوین حقوق بین‌الملل حاکم بر حملات سایبری

نوع مقاله : علمی پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 کارشناسی ارشد حقوق بین‌الملل، دانشکده حقوق دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد تهران مرکزی

2 دانش‌آموخته دکتری حقوق بین‌الملل دانشکده حقوق‌وعلوم‌سیاسی دانشگاه تهران

چکیده

عملیات سایبری به علت ماهیت انتزاعی فضای سایبر و مفاهیم ناملموس مطرح در آن، نسبت به فضای عینی، قلمرویی ناشناخته برای حقوق بین‌الملل به حساب می‌آید. قدم­گذاشتن حقوق بین‌الملل در قلمرو سایبر، همچون قدم­گذاشتن آلیس در سرزمین عجایب، مملو از شگفتی‌ها و ناشناخته‌ها است که در مقایسه و مطابقت با قوانین دنیای عینی، هنوز نمی‌توان برای اتفاقات درون آن، پاسخ درستی پیدا کرد. این فرایند، منجر به ظهور موانعی در مسیر تدوین حقوق بین‌الملل حاکم بر حملات سایبری شده است. بنیادی‌ترین این موانع را می‌توان در دو مورد «کاستی در ادبیات حقوقی بین‌المللی مرتبط با مفاهیم تکنیکی حملات سایبری» و «ضعف در برقراری ارتباط بین مفاهیم حقوقی دنیای عینی و دنیای سایبری» خلاصه کرد. گرچه اصول و قواعد حقوق بین‌الملل پاسخگوی قسمتی از جنبه‌های حقوقی بین‌المللی حملات سایبری است، اختلاف­نظر دولت‌ها حکایت از آن دارد که پاسخ‌های فعلی کافی نبوده و ناسازگاری‌ها بر سازگاری‌ها غلبه دارد. عجالتاً دو راهکار کلی «تدوین معاهدات منطقه‌ای و بین‌المللی» و «توسل به اقدامات موجد اعتماد» را می‌توان به منظور ازمیان­برداشتن موانع بنیادین پیش روی تدوین حقوق بین‌الملل حاکم بر حملات سایبری معرفی کرد تا از طریق این دو اقدام، ادبیات حقوقی بین‌المللی مربوط به حملات سایبری قوام یابد و مدون شود.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Fundamental Obstacles Facing the Codification of International Law Governing Cyber-Attacks

نویسندگان [English]

  • Alireza Ranjbar 1
  • Ali Garshasbi 2
1 Correspondent Author, Master of International Law, Islamic Azad University, Central Tehran Branch
2 Ph.D. in Public International Law, Faculty of Law, University of Tehran,
چکیده [English]

Cyber-attacks are unknown spheres in international law due to the abstract nature of cyber-space and their intangible implications in relation to the objective space. The pursuit of international law in cyber-space, such as the advent of Alice in Wonderland, is full of wonders that, when compared with the world’s objective laws, the correct answer cannot be found for the events that occur within it. This process has led to the emergence of barriers to the development of international law governing cyber-attacks, most of which include the weakness of international legal literature on the concept of cyber-attacks and the weakness of communication between the real world and the cyber/virtual world. Although the principles and rules of international law respond partly to some of the international legal aspects of cyber-crime attacks, disagreement among governments suggests that current responses are inadequate  and inconsistencies prevail. However, two general approaches namely drafting regional and international treaties and confidence-building measures might be introduced in order to overcome the fundamental obstacles that hinder the development of international law governing cyber-attacks, through which international legal literature relating to cyber-attacks could be well-developed.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Cyber-attack
  • Cyber-space
  • self-defense
  • Use of Force
  • Non-government actors
الف. فارسی
ـ کتاب
کمیسیون حقوق بین‌الملل سازمان ملل متحد، مسئولیت بین‌المللی دولت؛ متن و شرح مواد کمیسیون حقوق بین‌الملل، ترجمه: علیرضا ابراهیم­گل، چاپ سوم، شهر دانش، 1390.
 
ـ مقاله
آهنی امینه، محمد و فاطمه زهرا فتح‌اللهی؛ «حقوق بین‌الملل مدرن در مواجهه با جنگی پست­مدرن (نبرد سایبری)»، راهبرد، سال بیست­وسوم، پاییز 1393، شماره 72.
حبیبی، همایون و وحید بذّار؛ «حملات سایبری و ممنوعیت توسل به زور»، فصلنامه تعالی حقوق، دوره سوم، شماره 19، 1396.
___________­­_؛ «ظرفیت‌سنجی بند 4 ماده 2 منشور ملل متحد در قبال حملات سایبری از نظرگاه حقوق بین‌الملل»، مجموعه مقالات همایش هفتادمین سالگرد تأسیس سازمان ملل متحد (1394: انجمن ایرانی مطالعات سازمان ملل متحد و دانشکده روابط بین‌الملل وزارت امور خارجه)، اداره نشر وزارت امور خارجه، 1396.
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Ashley Deeks, “Unwilling or Unable: Toward a Normative Framework for Extraterrotial Self-Defense”, Virginia Journal of International Law, Vol. 52, 2012.
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ÖyküIrmakkesen, “The Notion of Armed Attack under the UN Charter and the Notion of International Armed Conflict – Interrelated or Distinct?”, LL.M. Paper written under the supervision of Professor Marco Sassòli, Geneva Academy, August 2014.
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ج. فرانسوی
- Chapitre dans le livre
Djamchid Momtaz, L’Évolution du Droit International Humanitaire Applicable à la Conduite des Hostilities, in: Conduct of Hostilities: the Practice, the Law and the Future (37th Round Table on Current Issues of International Humanitarian Law), International Institute of Humanitarian Law, 2015.