حقوق اتحادیه اروپا و چالش شناسایی حق مالکیت بر داده ها در عصر اقتصاد دیجیتال

نوع مقاله : علمی پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری حقوق خصوصی، دانشکدة حقوق و علوم سیاسی دانشگاه علامه طباطبائی

2 دانشیار دانشکدة حقوق و علوم سیاسی دانشگاه علامه طباطبائی

چکیده

پیشرفت سریع فناوری‌های نوین اطلاعاتی و تحلیل داده‌ها موجب آگاهی از ارزش اقتصادی داده‌ و تبدیل آن به نوع جدیدی از دارایی شده است. در اتحادیة اروپا، پذیرش داده به‌عنوان موضوع حقوقی جدید، تحول محسوب نمی‌شود بلکه آنچه تغییر یافته، مفهوم مالکیت است. با تبدیل داده به منبع حیاتی اقتصاد دیجیتال، توسعة قواعد حقوقی ازجمله حقوق مالکیت اهمیت می‌یابد. ازاین‌رو مقالة حاضر ضمن بررسی مفهوم «داده»، در صدد توصیف چالش شناسایی «حق مالکیت بر داده‌» و تحلیل استدلال‌های مخالف و موافق آن برآمده است و وضعیت مالکیت داده را در نظام‌های حقوق مالکیت فکری، حقوق اسرار تجاری، حقوق حمایت از داده، حقوق قراردادها و حقوق رقابت مطالعه می‌کند. ازیک سو نگرش به مالکیت به‌عنوان مفهومی بنیادین، در مورد داده‌ها با ابهام زیادی روبه‌روست و تمرکز بر مالکیت داده‌ می‌تواند نگرانی‌های اقتصادی و پرسش‌های حقوقی جدیدی با خود به همراه ‌آورد. از سوی دیگر، محدودیت در قواعد حقوقی مالکیت داده‌ بیش از این نباید نادیده گرفته شود؛ ساختار نظام‌های حقوقی مذکور نیز مبنای کافی برای حمایت از مالکیت داده‌ها ارائه نمی‌کند. راه‌حل، مقرره‌گذاری داده‌ها مبتنی بر تعریفی روشن از حقوق مالکیت داده‌ است که ضمن احترام به حقوق بنیادین افراد، اسباب موفقیت در اقتصاد دیجیتال را فراهم آورد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The EU Law and the Challenge of Data Ownership in the Era of the Digital Economy

نویسندگان [English]

  • Shima Attar 1
  • Farhad Parvin 2
1 PhD student in Private Law, Faculty of Law and Political Science, Allameh Tabataba'i University
2 Associate Professor, Faculty of Law and Political Science, Allameh Tabataba'i
چکیده [English]

The rapid development of new information technologies and data analytics has caused the awareness of the economic value of data, turning it into a new kind of asset. In the European Union, the acceptance of data as a new legal object is not revolutionary, but what has changed is the concept of ownership. By introducing data as the vital resource of the digital economy, the development of legal rules, including ownership rights, becomes necessary. This paper discusses the concept of data, identifies the challenges in defining the property rights in data by analysing for and against arguments, and studies the position of data in intellectual property rights, trade secrets, data protection, contracts, and competition law. Attitudes towards ownership as a fundamental concept, concerning data, face various uncertainties, and focus on data ownership could arise new economic concerns and legal issues. However, the lack of legal rules on data ownership should no longer be ignored. The mentioned legal systems also do not provide a sufficient basis for ownership of data. The solution is to regulate data, based on a clear definition of ownership while respecting the fundamental rights of individuals and providing the means of success in the digital economy.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Ownership
  • data
  • Intellectual Property Rights
  • Trade Secrets
  • Data Protection
  • Digital Economy
  • the European Union
  • الف . فارسی

    کتاب

    • اصلانی، حمیدرضا؛ حقوق فناوری اطلاعات (حریم خصوصی در جامعة اطلاعاتی)، با همکاری مرکز فناوری اطلاعات ریاست جمهوری، چاپ دوم، میزان، 1389.
    • انصاری، باقر؛ حق دسترسی به اطلاعات: آزادی اطلاعات، دفتر مطالعات و برنامه­ریزی رسانه­ها، 1397.
    • رهبری، ابراهیم؛ حقوق اسرار تجاری، سمت، 1388.
    • نوری، محمد علی و رضا نخجوانی؛ حقوق حمایت داده­ها، با همکاری کمیتة مطالعات حقوق فناوری ریاست جمهوری، گنج دانش، 1383.

    -مقاله

    • انصاری، باقر و حسین زند؛ «حمایت از داده­های آزمایشی در نظام مالکیت فکری»، پژوهش حقوق خصوصی، دورة 5، شمارة 16، پاییز 1395.
    • حبیبا، سعید و زهرا شاکری؛ «مبحثی در محدودیت­ها و استثنائات حقوق مالکیت ادبی و هنری»، مجلة مطالعات حقوق تطبیقی، دورة 3، شمارة 1، بهار و تابستان 1391.

    ب. انگلیسی

    - Books

    • Banterle, Francesco, Data Ownersip in the Data Economy: A European Dilemma, EU Internet Law in the Digital Era, Springer, 2018.
    • Marcelo, Corrales Compagnucci, Big Data, Databases and "Ownership" Rights in the Cloud, Springer, 2020.
    • Purtova, Nadezhda, Property Rights in Personal Data: A European Perspective, Kluwer Law International, 2011.

    - Articles

    • Demsetz, Harold, “Towards a Theory of Property Rights”, The American Economic Review, vol. 57 (2), 1967.
    • Drexl, Josef, “Designing Competitive Markets for Industrial Data – Between Propertisation and Access”, Journal of Intellectual Property, Information Technology and Electronic Commerce Law, 8, no. 4, 2017.
    • Duch-Brown, Nestor and Bertin Martens and Frank Mueller-Langer, “The Economics of Ownership, Access and Trade in Digital Data”, JRC Digital Economy Working Paper, 2017.
    • Gärtner, Anette and Brimsted, Kate, “Let’s Talk about Data Ownership”, European Intellectual Property Review, vol. 39, issue 8, 2017.
    • Hugenholtz, P. Bernt, “Data Property: Unwelcome Guest in the House of IP”, Institute for Information Law, 2018.
    • Kemp, Richard, “Legal Aspects of Managing Data”, Kemp It Law, 2014.
    • Malgieri, Gianclaudio, “Ownership of Customer (Big) Data in the European Union: Quasi-Property as Comparative Solution”, Journal of Internet Law, vol. 20, n.5, November 2016.
    • Kerber, Wolfgang, “A New (Intellectual) Property Right for Nonpersonal Data? An Economic Analysis”, MAGKS Joint Discussion Paper Series in Economics, No. 37-2016, Philipps-University Marburg, School of Business and Economics, Marburg, 2016.
    • Martens, Bertin, “An Economic Policy Perspective on Online Platforms”, Institute for Prospective Technological Studies Digital Economy Working Paper 2016/05, JRC101501 2016.
    • Ritter, Jeffrey and Mayer, Anna, “Regulating Data as Property: A New Construct for Moving Forward”, Duke Law & Technology Review, 2018.
    • Stepanov, Ivan, “Introducing a Property Right over Data in the EU: the Data Producer’s Right – an Evaluation”, International Review of Law, Computers & Technology, vol. 34:1, 2020.

     

    -International Instruments

    • Article 29 Working Party, “Guidelines on the right to data portability”, WP242, available at: http://ec.europa.eu/newsroom/document.cfm?doc_id=44099, 2017.
    • Deloitte, Directorate-General for Communications Networks, Content and Technology (European Commission), “Study on emerging issues of data ownership, interoperability, (re-)usability and access to data, and liability”, European Union, 2018.
    • Directorate-General for Communications Networks, Content and Technology (European Commission), Osborne Clarke LLP, “Legal study on ownership and access to data”, European Union, 2016.
    • Drexl, Josef and Hilty, Reto and Desaunettes-Barbero, Luc and Greiner, Franziska and Kim, Daria and Richter, Heiko and Surblyte, Gintare and Wiedemann, Klaus. “Data Ownership and Access to Data - Position Statement of the Max Planck Institute for Innovation and Competition of 16 August 2016 on the Current European Debate". Max Planck Institute for Innovation & Competition Research Paper 16-10, 2016.
    • Drexl, Josef, “Data Access and Control in the Era of Connected Devices”, Study on Behalf of the European Consumer Organization BEUC, Brussels 2018.
    • Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development, Working Party on Security and Privacy in the Digital Economy, “OECD expert workshop on enhanced access to data: reconciling risks and benefits of data re-use”, Summary of the discussions, 2018.
    • Communication from The Commission to The European Parliament, The Council, The European Economic and Social Committee and The Committee of the Regions “Building A European Data Economy”, 2017.
    • Council of Europe Convention on the Protection of Individuals with regard to Automatic Processing of Personal Data, 1981.
    • Directive (EU) 2016/943 of the European Parliament and of the Council on the protection of undisclosed know-how and business information (trade secrets) against their unlawful acquisition, use and disclosure, 2016.
    • Directive 95/46/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council on the protection of individuals with regard to the processing of personal data and on the free movement of such data, 1995.
    • Directive 96/9/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council on the legal protection of databases, 1996.
    • Regulation (EU) 2016/679 of the European Parliament and of the Council on the protection of natural persons with regard to the processing of personal data and on the free movement of such data, and repealing Directive 95/46/EC (General Data Protection Regulation), 2016.
    • Regulation (EU) 2018/1807 of the European Parliament and of the Council on a framework for the free flow of non-personal data in the European Union, 2018.

    -Websites

    • European commission, “what is personal data?”, available at: https://ec.europa.eu/info/law/law-topic/data-protection/reform/what-personal-data_en
    • Information Technology — Vocabulary, ISO/IEC, 2382:2015(en), available at: https://www.iso.org/obp/ui/#iso:std:iso-iec:2382:ed-1:v1:en.
    • Van Asbroeck, Benoit and Debussche, Julien and César, Jasmien, “Big data and issues and opportunities: data ownership”, 2019, available at: https://www.twobirds.com/en/news/articles/2019/global/big-data-and-issues-and-opportunities-data-ownership.
    • Zech, Herbert, “Data as a Tradeable Commodity”, In European Contract Law and the Digital Single Market, Implications of the Digital Revolution, edited by Alberto De Franceschi, 51–80. Cambridge: Intersentia, 2016, available at: https://www.cambridge.org/core/books/european-contract-law-and-the-digital-single-market/data-as-a-tradeable-commodity/9D9E07D5B5E3C86C1B2E04BF8C01D15B.