عنوان مقاله [English]
نویسنده [English]چکیده [English]
Deviation doctrine is a famous doctrine in maritime law and marine insurance, according to which geographical deviation of carrier leads to various effects: Justifiable deviation constitutes a cause of exception of liability of the carrier; unjustifiable deviation aggravates the liability of carrier. In marine insurance, unjustifiable deviation discharges the insurer. International conventions, often, contain some provisions on justifiable deviation, but are silent about unjustifiable deviation. There are, thus, some controversies about the effects of unjustifiable deviation in national laws. In common law, such deviation aggravates the liability of carrier. In French law, it does not affect the liability of carrier per se. It seems that the common law approach is more acceptable in Iranian law as, on the one hand, it constitutes a lex maritima and is, on the other hand, similar to the Sharia position regarding the liability of bailees. In this article, the effects of justifiable and unjustifiable deviation have been examined in international conventions, Iranian, English, French and American laws. Besides, this article reviews liberty clauses and the effects of deviation in marine insurance under two separate sections.