کنوانسیون حمایت در برابر ناپدیدسازی اجباری و ضرورت پیوستن ایران به آن

نوع مقاله: علمی پژوهشی

نویسنده

استادیار دانشکده حقوق پردیس فارابی دانشگاه تهران

10.22066/cilamag.2017.27968

چکیده

«کنوانسیون بین‌المللی برای حمایت از همه افراد در برابر ناپدیدسازی اجباری» در تاریخ 23 دسامبر سال 2010 میلادی لازم‌الاجرا شد. پیش‌تر، مجمع عمومی سازمان ملل متحد در 20 دسامبر 2006، این کنوانسیون را تصویب کرده بود. مقرراتی که تحت لوای سازمان ملل متحد در این کنوانسیون گنجانده شده، رهیافت توسعه روز‌افزون حمایت از حقوق بشر را در سطح بین‌المللی و داخلی آشکار می‌سازد. به‌واقع، مقررات مندرج در این کنوانسیون، تا حدود بسیاری به زاویای مختلفی از گونه تقریباً رایجی از نقض فاحش حقوق بشر در سطح بین‌المللی و داخلی پرداخته و طی کنوانسیونی بین‌المللی، خلأهای موجود در این زمینه را برطرف و کارهای انجام‌شده پیش از خود را کامل کرده است. این در حالی است که تحت شرایطی، ناپدیدسازی اجباری اشخاص در زمره جرائم علیه بشریت قرار می‌گیرد. این نوشتار، ابتدا نگاهی به تاریخچه پیدایش مفهوم ناپدیدسازی اجباری خواهد داشت. سپس، آورده‌های کنوانسیون با سایر اسناد حقوق‌بشری منطقه‌ای و بین‌المللی بررسی و در پایان، مباحثی درباره نگاه ایران در زمان تدوین و تصویب کنوانسیون و ضرورت پیوستن به آن ارائه خواهد شد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Convention for the Protection from Enforced Disappearance and the Necessity of Accession of Iran to It

نویسنده [English]

  • Abdollah Abedini
Assistant Professor of Faculty of Law, Pardis Farabi Branch of Tehran University
چکیده [English]

"International Convention for the Protection of All Persons from Enforced Disappearance" entered into force on 21 December 2010 while it had already been adopted by the United Nations General Assembly on 20 December 2006. The provisions which have been embodied under the auspices of the United Nations in the Convention manifest the approach of increasing development of human rights in international and domestic levels. The provisions laid down in the Convention, indeed, shed light on different aspects of an existing, serious violation of human rights in international and domestic levels and in this regard, filled the gap and completed the previous process. In some circumstances, the commission of enforced disappearance results in crime against humanity. In this paper, first of all, the background of the literature will be reviewed briefly and then, the achievements of the Convention will be compared with other regional and international human rights instruments. 

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • International Law
  • United Nations General Assembly
  • International Human Rights Law
  • Enforced Disappearance
  • Crimes against Humanity

منابع:

الف) فارسی

ـ کتاب

  • اردبیلی، محمدعلی؛ حقوق جزای عمومی، جلد اول، چاپ ششم، میزان، 1383.
  • باهری، محمد؛ حقوق جزای عمومی، (تقریرات)، رهام، 1381.
  • عبداللهی، محسن؛ تروریسم: حقوق بشر و حقوق بشردوستانه، شهر دانش،1380.

 

ـ پایان‌نامه

 

ب) انگلیسی

- Books

  • Condé, H. Victor, A Handbook of International Human Rights Terminology, Second Edition, 2004.
  • Cryer, Robert et al, An Introduction to International Criminal Law and Procedure, Cambridge University Press, 2007.
  • Daudet, Yves, “International Action against State Terrorism”, in Terrorism and International Law, Edited by Rosalyn Higgins and Maurice Flory, Routledge, 1997.
  • De Schutter, Olivier, International Human Rights Law: Cases, Materials, Commentary, Cambridge University Press, 2010.
  • Paust, Jordan J.,” Secret Detentions, Secret Renditions, and Forced Disappearances During the Bush Administration’s War on Terror”, in, The Theory and Practice of International Criminal Law, Essays in Honor of M. Cherif Bassiouni, 2008, Martinus Nijhoff Publishers.
  • Schabas, William A., An Introduction to the International Criminal Court, Cambridge University Press, 2004.
  • Scovazzi, Tullio and Gabriella Citroni,The Struggle against Enforced Disappearance and the 2007 United Nations Convention, Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, 2007.
  • The Trial of German Major War Criminals – Proceedings of the International Military Tribunal Sitting at Nuremberg, vol. 18, London, 1950.

 

- Articles

  • Crettol, Monique and Anne-Marie La Rosa, “The Missing and Transitional Justice: The Right to Know and the Fight Against Impunity”, International Review of the Red Cross, vol. 88, No. 862, June 2006.
  • Finucane, Brian, “Enforced Disappearance as a Crime under International Law: A Neglected Origin in the Laws of War”, The Yale Journal of Internatioanl Law, vol. 35, 2010.
  • Sassòli, Marco et Marie-Louise Tougas, , “The ICRC and the Missing”, International Review of the Red Cross, 2002, vol. 84, No. 848.
  • Sévane, Garibian, “Enforced Disappearances of Persons”, in Online Encyclopedia of Mass Violence.

 http://www.massviolence.org/Article?id_article=192.

 

- Case Laws

  • Mouvement Burkinabé des Droits de l'H omme et des Peuples/ Burkino Faso, 204/97, http://www.achpr.org/english/Decison_Communication/ Burkina%20faso/Comm.%20204-97.pdf.
  • Legality of the Threat or Use of Nuclear Weapons, Advisory Opinion, I.C.J. Reports 1996.
  • Prosecutor v. Kunarac et al. (Case IT-96-23 and IT-96-23/I-A), Judgment, 12 June 2002.
  • The Prosecutor v. Ahmad Muhammad Harun («Ahmad Harun») and Ali Muhammad Ali Abd-Al-Rahman («Ali Kushayb») n° ICC-02/05-01/07, 27 April 2007.
  • Hamdan v. Rumsfeld, Secretary of Defense, et al., Supreme Court of The United States, No. 05–184, June 29, 2006.
  • Velasquez Rodriguez Case, Judgment of July 29, 1988, Inter-Am.Ct.H.R. (Ser. C) No. 4 (1988).
  • Kunarac and Others Case, 12 June 2002, IT-96-23 & 23/1-A.
  • Boucherf v. Algeria, Communication No. 1196/2003, 27 April 2006.
  • Magomadov and Magomadov v. Russia, ECHR, 12 July 2007.

·       Kupreškić et al., IT-95-16-T, 14 January 2000, available at: http://www.icty.org/x/cases/kupreskic/tjug/en/kup-tj000114e.pdf.

 

- Documents & Reports

  • A/RES/33/173
  • A/RES/47/133
  • Declaration on Principles of International Law concerning Friendly Relations and Co-operation among States in Accordance with the Charter of the United Nations, General Assembly Resolution 2625 (XXV) of 24 October 1970.
  • Declaration on the Protection of all Persons from Enforced Disappearance of 18 December 1992, A/RES/47/133.
  • Enforced or Involuntary Disappearances, Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights, Fact Sheet No. 6/Rev.3.
  • General Comment on Enforced Disappearance as a Continuous Crime.
  • Inter-American Convention on the Forced Disappearance of Persons of June 9 1994.
  • Report of the Intersessional Open-ended Working Group to Elaborate a Draft Legally Binding Normative Instrument for the Protection of all, E/CN.4/2006/57, 2 February 2006. Persons from Enforced Disappearance
  • Report of the Working Group on Enforced or Involuntary Disappearances of 26 January 2011.
  • Report of the Working Group on Enforced or Involuntary Disappearances of 27 December 2005.
  • Report of the Working Group on Enforced or Involuntary Disappearances, E/CN.4/2002/79, 18 January 2002.
  • Resolution 33/173 of 20 December 1978.
  • ·       Vienna Declaration and Programme of Action, A/CONF.157/23, 12 July 1993.
  • Without a Trace: Enforced Disappearances in Syria, 19 December 2013.
  • Working Group on Enforced or Involuntary Disappearances, General Comment on Enforced Disappearance as a Continuous Crime.
  • Working Group on Enforced or Involuntary Disappearances, General Comment on the Right to the Truth in Relation to Enforced Disappearances.
  • Working Group on Enforced or Involuntary Disappearances, General Comment on Enforced Disappearances as a Crime Against Humanity.

·       Communications, Cases Examined, Observations, and other Activities Conducted by the Working Group on Enforced or Involuntary Disappearances, A/HRC/WGEID/108/1, 15 April 2016.

·       Mexico: Crisis of Enforced Disappearances, available at: https://www.hrw.org/ news/2013/02/20/mexico-crisis-enforced-disappearances.

 

- Websites