نوع مقاله : علمی پژوهشی
1 استاد دانشکده حقوق وعلوم سیاسی دانشگاه تهران
2 دکتری حقوق بینالملل دانشگاه تهران و مدرس دانشگاه
عنوان مقاله [English]
The technology of purposeful manipulation of biological organisms is introduced by biotechnology industry in twenty-first century. This industry in making the genetic modification has to access to its raw materials, i.e. genetic resources (either human resources or non-human ones). Without such an access, biotechnologist cannot acquire huge benefits of commercialization of Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs). While the most biotechnology companies are incorporated or domiciled in developed countries, the most diversity in genetic resources can be found in developing countries which are deprived of this technology. Thus companies in North Countries eagerly tend to access South Countries’ genetic diversity, while the latter tries to conserve their right to benefit from biotechnology developments made up of their recourses. To solve this conflict of interests, International community should emphasize on the necessity of regulating an efficient system of access and benefit sharing systems for biotechnological advances. Establishing such a system, however, preceeds the determination of legal regimes on genetic resources. In this research, it is strived to prove the fact that although human and non-human genetic resources have the same bio function, they should be governed by different legal regimes in international law.
- Reports and Other Documents
The Human Genome Organization, Statement on Benefit Sharing, April 9, 2000, available at: http://www.hugo-international.org/ Statement_on_ Benefit_Sharing.htm: Council of Europe (Parliamentary Assembly), Recommendation 1512, Protection of the Human Genome by the Council of Europe, 2001, available at: http://assembly.coe.int/ Documents/ AdoptedText/ta01/erec1512.htm