عنوان مقاله [English]
نویسندگان [English]چکیده [English]
Wetlands are among the most valuable ecosystems on the Earth. The need for protection of these ecosystems has made the international society to conclude the Ramsar Convention for the Conservation of International Wetlands in 1971. This convention as one of the most important environmental treaties and the only existing particular treaty concerning the protection of wetlands, urges all member states including Iran, to use wetlands wisely. Anzali Lagoon is one of Iran’s wetlands of international importance included in the Ramsar List. Despite this commitment, Anzali Lagoon is exposed to eradication and degrading due to various reasons such as the discharge of urban, agricultural and industrial wastes, fluctuations of water levels in Caspian Sea, introduction of alien invasive plant species of Azula, and construction of bypass road in the Anzali Port which resulted in the inclusion of this wetland in the Montreux Record (list of endangered wetlands). While this paper pays close attention to the environmental challenges facing the Anzali Lagoon, it examines and analyzes legal and non-legal mechanisms to resolve such issues in the framework of the Ramsar Convention. These mechanisms include, but not limited to, realization of sustainable development, environmental impact assessment, wise use of Anzali Lagoon wetlands, and ecosystem-based approaches. This paper concludes that for sustainable conservation of the Anzali Lagoon, it is necessary to implement these mechanisms completely.