ظرفیت های نظم کنونی حقوق بین‌الملل در شناسایی مفهوم ژنوسید فرهنگی

نوع مقاله : علمی پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار گروه حقوق دانشگاه اصفهان

2 دانشجوی دکتری حقوق بین الملل، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، واحد نجف آباد

چکیده

مفهوم یا نظریه ژنوسید فرهنگی که به تعبیری عبارت از امحای عمدی یادمان­ها، هویت یا فرهنگ یک گروه، بدون حذف فیزیکی آن گروه است، هرچند در ماده 3 پیش­نویس کنوانسیون ژنوسید آمده بود، در متن نهایی به‌کلی حذف شد و انواع ژنوسید، به کشتن گروه­های ملی، قومی، نژادی و مذهبی محدود شد. سایر اسناد بین­المللی الزام­آور و همچنین تا حدودی رویه‌قضایی بین­المللی نیز تا کنون از پذیرش این مفهوم، سر باز زده­اند. باوجود این، در جهان معاصر، جنایت­ها و اعمالی دیده می­شود که یا بر پایه عوامل فرهنگی یا به قصد نابودی نشان­ها و سنت­های یک فرهنگ صورت می­گیرد که در تعریف هیچ­یک از جنایات بین­المللی و ازجمله ژنوسید فیزیکی گنجانده نمی‌شوند اما نزدیک­ترین حالت به مفهوم ژنوسید فرهنگی یا نابودسازی فرهنگی هستند. بنابراین، نظر به انکارناپذیری برخی واقعیات جهان معاصر، این مقاله سعی دارد ظرفیت­های حقوق بین­الملل کنونی را در شناسایی نظریه ژنوسید فرهنگی و درنتیجه، جرم­انگاری اعمال صورت‌گرفته علیه فرهنگ یک ملت، بسنجد. این بررسی با نگاهی نوین صورت می­گیرد که در نهایت به این نتیجه می­رسد که هرچند حقوق بین­الملل موضوعة معاصر، تاب پذیرش این نظریه را ندارد، می­توان نشانه‌هایی از وجود زمینه­های بروز این مفهوم را یافت.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The Capacity of the Contemporary International Law in Recognition of the Concept of Cultural Genocide

نویسندگان [English]

  • Alireza arashpour 1
  • Majid Zahmatkesh 2
1 assistant professor of law university of Isfahan
2 PhD Student of International Law, Islamic Azad University, Najafabad Branch
چکیده [English]

The concept of “cultural genocide”, ie. the deliberate destruction of monuments, identity or culture of a group without its physical removal, although specified in Article 3 of the Draft Convention of Genocide, was finally removed from the final text and limited the genocide to killing a national, ethnic, racial and religious group. Other binding international instruments as well as some international case law so far have refused to accept this concept. However, there are still crimes and acts that are being committed based on cultural factors or intentionally for destruction of cultural symbols and traditions and they are not defined as the international crimes and genocide. But, they are closest to the concept of cultural genocide or cultural destruction. This article aims to consider capacities of the contemporary international law in recognition of the concept of cultural genocide and criminalization of the offences committed against a nation’s culture in a new approach. Finally, it concludes that present positive international law does not accept this theory, yet signs of this concept’s grounds of appearance can be traced.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Genocide
  • Cultural Genocide
  • Culture
  • Destruction
  • criminalization
  • Binding Instruments
  • الف) فارسی

    ـ کتاب

    • ·     آشوری، داریوش؛ تعریف‌ها و مفهوم فرهنگ، آگاه،1380.
    • ·     ضیایی بیگدلی، محمدرضا و همکاران؛ آراء و نظرات مشورتی دیوان بین‌المللی دادگستری، جلد دوم، انتشارات دانشگاه علامه طباطبایی، 1388.

     

    ـ مقاله

    • ·        حق‌شناس، فرامرز؛ «تعاریف فرهنگ، نقش فرهنگ در نظام اجتماعی و فرهنگ سازمانی»، نشریه دانشگاه انقلاب، شماره 98 و 99، تابستان و پاییز 1373.
    • ·     راعی، مسعود و سیدعلی حسینی‌آزاد؛ «نگاهی به رویه و عملکرد دیوان اروپایی حقوق بشر در زمینه ادعاهای نقض حقوق و آزادی‌های دینی»، مجموعه مقالات همایش جایگاه ادیان الهی در نظام‌های حقوقی، دانشیاران ایران، 1394.
    • ·     مقصودی، محمدعلی؛ «سیستم حقوقی و مراحل تنفیذ قانون در افغانستان»، مجموعه مقالات همایش حمایت از اموال فرهنگی و تاریخی در حقوق بین‌الملل، شهر دانش، 1391.

     

    ب) انگلیسی

    - Books

    • Campbell, Kenneth J., Genocide and the Global Village, Palgrave Macmillan, 2001.
    • Chalk, Frank, Jonassohn, Kurt, The History and Sociology of Genocide: Analyses and Case Studies, New Haven: Yale University Press, 1990.
    • Chehata, Hanan, The Cultural Genocide of Palestine, Published by Middle East Monitor, London, 2010.
    • Fournet, Caroline, The Crime of Destruction and the Law of Genocide: Their Impact on Collective Memory, Farnham: Ashgate Publishing, 2007.
    • Kinloch, Graham C., & Mohan, Raj P. (eds.), Genocide: Approaches, Case Studies, and Responses, New York, Algora Publishing, 2005.
    • Kuper, Leo, Genocide: Its Political Use in the Twentieth Century, Yale University Press, 1981.
    • Lemkin, Raphaël, Axis Rule in Occupied Europe: Laws of Occupation, Analysis of Government, Proposals for Redress (Washington, D.C.:  Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, Division of International Law, 1944.
    • O’Keefe, Roger, The Protection of Cultural Property in Armed Conflict, Cambridge University Press, USA, 2006.
    • Porter, J. N. (ed.), Genocide and Human Rights, A Global Anthology, Washington, DC: University Press of America, 1982.
    • Schabas, William A., Genocide in International Law: The Crimes of Crimes, Cambridge University Press, 2000.
    • Tinker, George E., Missionary Conquest: The Gospel and Native American Cultural Genocide, Fortress Press & Minneapolis, 1993.
    • Tylor, Edward, Primitive Culture: Researches into the Development of Mythology, Philosophy, Religion, Art, and Custom, vol. 1, 6th Ed.
    • Vrdoljak, Ana Filipa, International Law, Museums, and the Return of Cultural Objects, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2006.

     

    - Articles

    • Andreopoulos, George J., “Introduction; The Calculus of Genocide”, in Genocide: Conceptual and Historical Dimensions (George J. Andreopolous (ed.), 1994).
    • Anayiotos, Daphne, “The Cultural Genocide Debate: Should the UN Genocide Convention Include a Provision on Cultural Genocide, or Should the Phenomenon be Encompassed in a Separate International Treaty”, 22 The New York University Law Review, 2009.
    • Francioni, Francesco, and Lenzerini, Federico, “The Destruction of the Buddhas of Bamiyan and International Law”, EJIL (2003), vol. 14 No. 4.
    • Geer, Martin, “Foreigners in Their Own Land: Cultural Land and Transnational Corporations Emergent International Rights and Wrongs,” Virginia Journal of International Law, vol. 38 (1998).
    • Hatchell, Michael P., “Closing the Gaps in United States Law and Implementing the Rome Statute: A Comparative Approach”, 12 ILSA Journal of International and Comparative Law (2005).
    • Herz, Richard L., “Litigating Environmental Abuses under the Alien Torts Claims Act: A Practical Assessment”, Virginia Journal of International Law, vol. 40, (2000).
    • Koivunen, Kristiina, “Cultural Genocide and Fayli Deportation, Examples of Genocide Process in Iraqi Kurdistan”, Journal of Zankoy Sulaimani, Part B. No. 41, July 2013.
    • Koskenniemi, Martti, “Evil Intention or Vicious Acts: What is Prima Facie Evidence of Genocide?”, in Helsinki: Finnish Branch of the International Law Association, Liber Amicorum Bengt Broms 180, p. 182 (Matti Tupamaki (ed.), 1999.
    • Lemkin, Raphaël, “Genocide as a Crime under International Law”, American Journal of International Law, vol. 41, 1947.
    • Leon, Terri, “The Draft Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples: Three Case Studies,” New England International and Comparative Law, Annual 6, 2000.
    • Lippman, Matthew, “The 1948 Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide: Forty-Five Years Later”, 8 Temple International and Comparative Law Journal, 38 (1999).
    • Lippman, Matthew, “The Drafting of the 1948 Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide”, 3 The Boston University International Law Journal, 1985.
    • Lythcott-Haims, Julie C., “Where Do Mixed Babies Belong? Racial Classification in America and Its Implications for Transracial Adoption”, 29 Harvard Civil Rights-Civil Liberties Law Review, 1994.
    • Mako, Shamiran, “Cultural Genocide and Key International Instruments: Framing the Indigenous Experience”, International Journal on Minority and Group Rights, 2012.
    • Mark A. Michaels, “Indigenous Ethics and Alien Laws: Native Traditions and the United States Legal System”, 66 Fordham Law Review, 1998.
    • Morsink, Johannes, “Cultural Genocide, the Universal Declaration, and Minority Rights”, 21 HUM. RTS. Q. 1009, 1019 (1999).
    • O’Keefe, Roger, “Protection of Cultural Property under International Criminal Law”, Melbourne Journal of International Law, vol. 11, 2010.
    • Sautman, Barry, “Cultural Genocide in International Context”, in Sautman(ed.) Cultural Genocide and Asian State Peripheries, Palgrave Macmillan, New York, 2006.
      • Sautman, Barry, “Cultural Genocide and Tibet”, Texas International Law Journal, vol. 38: 173, 2003.
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      • Skutnabb-Kangas, Tove and Bucak Sertac, “Killing a Mother Tongue - How the Kurds Are Deprived of Linguistic Human Rights”, in: Linguistic Human Rights, Overcoming Linguistic Discrimination. (ed.) Tove Skutnabb-Kangas and Robert Phillipson in collabouration with Mart Rannut. Mouton de Gruyter, Berlin, 1994.
      • Van Bruinessen, Martin, “Genocide of the Kurds”, in: The Widening Circle of Genocide, Genocide: a Critical Bibliographic Review. vol. 3. Edited by Israel W. Charny.
      • “Will United States Endorse Cultural Genocide in Romania”, New York Times, May 7, 1976, Section 1.

     

    - Online Articles

    • David Nersessian, “Rethinking Cultural Genocide under International Law Human Rights Dialogue: "Cultural Rights"”, Carnegie Council for Ethics in International Affairs, 2005.
    • Puxley, Chinta, “Aboriginal Adoptees Suing Ottawa for ‘Cultural Genocide’”, Global News, February 9, 2015.
    • Noradounkian, Emma, “Destroying the Memory of a People: ISIS' Cultural Genocide of Religious Minorities”, An online article published by Assyrian International News Agency, available at: http://mironline.ca (last visited on: 15/01/2016)
    • Nebez, Jemal, “The Kurdish Language from Oral Tradition to Written Language”, Berlin, Germany, 2000. An online article published by Kurdish Academy of Language.
    • Reuters, Thomas, “ISIS Fighters Destroy Priceless Iraq Antiquities”, CBC News, February 25, 2016.

     

    - Instruments

    • Ad Hoc Committee on Genocide, Report of the Committee and Draft Convention Drawn up by the Committee, UN ESCOR, UN Doc E/794 (24 May 1948). 
    • Benjamin Whitaker, Special Rapporteur, Review of Further Developments in Fields with Which the Sub-Commission Has Been Concerned: Revised and Updated Report on the Question of the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide Prepared by Mr. B. Whitaker, U.N. ESCOR, Human Rights Sub-Commission on the Prevention of Discrimination and Protection of Minorities, 38th Sess., at 37, 40, U.N. Doc.E/CN.4/Sub.2/ 1985/6 (1985).
    • Eighty-Third Meeting, Held at Palais de Chaillot, Paris, on Monday, 25 October 1948, UN GAOR, 6th Comm, 3rd sess, UN Doc A/C.6/SR.83 (25 October 1948) 202.
    • Independent Commission on International Humanitarian Issues, and U.N. Special Rapporteur José R. Martínez Cobo).
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    • Report of the International Law Commission on the work of its forty-eighth session, UN Doc A/51/10
    • Report of the Secretary-General pursuant to paragraph 2 of Security Council resolution 808 (1993), para. 45, citing Reservations to the Convention on Genocide.
    • Summary Record of Meetings, U.N. ESCOR, 7th Sess., Supp. No. 6, at 6, U.N. Doc. E/3/SR.175-225 (1948).
    • The Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide, adopted by Resolution 260 (III) A of the United Nations General Assembly on 9 December 1948.

     

    • The Crime of Genocide, GA Res 96 (I), UN GAOR, 1st sess, 55th mtg, UN Doc A/RES/96(I) (11 December 1946). 
    • the United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples; adopted by the General Assembly under Resolution 61/295, 107th plenary meeting, 13 September 2007.

     

    - Case Laws

    • Application of the Convention of Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide (Bosnia and Herzegovina v. Serbia and Montenegro), Order of 13 September 1993.
    • Application of the Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide (Bosnia and Herzegovina v Serbia and Montenegro) (Merits) [2007] ICJ Rep 4. 
    • Armed Activities on the Territory of the Congo (New Application: 2002) (Democratic Republic of the Congo v. Rwanda), ICJ General List No. 126, Jurisdiction and Admissibility, 3 February 2006.
    • Beanal v. Freeport-McMoran, Inc., 197 F.3d 161, 167-169 (United States Court of Appeals, 5th Circuit. 1999).
    • Prosecutor v. Krstic’, IT-98-33-A, Appeals Chamber Judgment, 19 April 2004.
    • Prosecutor v. Krstic’, IT-98-33-T, Trial Chamber Judgment, 2 August 2001.
    • Reservations to the Convention on Genocide, Advisory Opinion, ICJ Reports 1951.