نویسنده مسئول، دکترای حقوق بین الملل عمومی، دانشگاه علامه طباطبایی
عنوان مقاله [English]
Current changes in the international law are a consequence of new fundamental concepts of the sovereignty of states. In the classical meaning of the sovereignty of states, states used to enjoy special immunity. Under the cover of immunity, states possessed absolute authority and inviolability. No mechanism of control with respect to their dealings had been taken into consideration. Established on the same foundation of inviolable authority, the pertinent United Nations Charter did not allow the intervention of the charter in the sphere of the sovereignty of states. The Charter identified the legitimacy of dealings of states and international organisations dependent of strict consideration of the principles of ’the sovereignty of states’ and ’equality of states’. Changes in the international law have, especially after the second World War, led to ’individual rights’, irrespective of nationality, race, or kind of people. With respect to their inhabitants, states are bound to follow those principles and regulations that are generally referred to as ’the laws of human rights’. The coming into existence of human rights as well as the commitment of serious offences by states against the international criminal law have brought about special enactments on states codified in the general international law. The special enactments are additional to the code of international criminal laws and the laws of criminal responsibility of an individual. As a result of the Contemporary developments, the current international criminal law has, by way of making a distinction between International Crimes and International Felony(Delict), brought about an increase in their responsibilities beyond the regular international responsibility of states. International responsibility of states was mainly performed on the principle of compensation of damage, whereas no punitive penalties were characteristic of them and this is something which is totally different with responsibilities in international criminal law.